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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

bluu, v.r.s.(round object) broken, smashed or shuttered; (bomb) exploded; blistered.
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cheltoem, v.r.s.smeared or spread on.
cheltoem a chelsechusem; mla mechetoem; chotemii, chotoem er a chesbereber, mengetoem, chetemel.
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delengesakl, v.r.s.(person or thing) under a spell.
delengesakl a mla medengesakl; chad a mla melengesakl er ngii; olengit a mekngit el kirel; dongeseklii er a chelid.
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kerriil, v.r.s.(person) reminded of debt, etc.; (loan, etc.) recalled.
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kliut, v.r.s.(weeds, grass) cut; (garden, village, road, etc.) cleaned up.
kliut a mla mekiut; kluotel, nglaml e rriik; mla mekedmokl el mo mededaes; kiuetii a beluu, kmiut a blai, kutel.
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rrous, v.r.s.divided up; distributed.
rrous a blii; mla merous; mii a kall er a kemeldiil; kall a rrous.
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ulekramek, v.r.s.treated with compost.
ulekramek a mla mukramek; mla locha ramek; kloeas; mekremekii a mesei, omekramek, ukremekel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

chemechemall, v.a.s.is to be urinated on.
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dirkall, v.a.s.is to be looked at in a mirror.
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kesadel, v.a.s.is to be decreased or reduced.
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ngedall, v.a.s.is to be seen/sent off; is to be returned/sent back; (bride) is to be brought to prospective husband's family.
ngedall a kirel mengader; ngedall er a blil a chebechiil; ngoderii a ngelekel; merader a lleng el olekang; ngederel.
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osesall, v.a.s.is to be squeezed or pressed.
osesall a kirel el mouet; kirel el moseos, omeseos, lius a osesall, meseos; omet, osesel a lius.
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rebekall, v.a.s.is to be groped at.
rebekall a kirel el merebek; ochab er a chemang a rebekall; robekii el oba orebek; ruebek, rebekel.
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semesemall, v.a.s.is to be tied shut.
semesemall a semesamel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

bangikoibutterfly; moth.bangikoiprone to moving from one girlfriend/boyfriend to another.
cherouwhite mushroom; white scar.cherouwhite mushroom; white scar.
tangtikebikelsee-saw; teeter-totter.tangtikebikel(object) wobbly or in danger of falling over.
chemadechcoconut sap.chemadechcoconut sap.
riklbold/violent behavior.meriklbold; violent; restless.
kullcyst; tumor.kullcyst; tumor.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

kikiongel a rengul(person is) obstinate/uncooperative; sullen.
mimokl a rengulbroad-minded.
seselkang a rengulbecoming bored or impatient.
mengedecheduch er a rengulthink; say to oneself.
mekikiid a rengulunsympathetic; uncaring; uninvolved; emotionless.
ukab er a rengul(something sentimental) arouses one's emotions (touch someone's figurative heart).
mesubed a rengulaccept; be resigned to; learn a lesson; learn from experience.

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