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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

blkais, v.r.s.opened; lifted open/up.
blkais a mla obkais; blok, blkais a chesimer, mkisii, mkais, bkisel.
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klsekes, v.r.s.(chant, lullaby, etc.) sung.
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nglidel, v.r.s.lifted out of water.
nglidel a mla mengidel; odoim a nglidel; ngidelii a ngikel; bub a nglidel.
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nglobt, v.r.s.(newborn baby) has had membrane washed off.
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ulduleb, v.r.s.dipped into water.
ulduleb a mla moduleb; ngar er a chelsel a daob, ngalek a ulduleb er a ralm, odelebii, odelebel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

idesall, v.a.s.(fruit) is to be pared or shredded.
idesall a kirel el meiides; bobai a idesall, idesii a bobai, melides er ngii, idesel.
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kseksall, v.a.s.(metal, wood, etc.) is to be filed.
kseksall a ksekikl; kirel el meksous.
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ochedecheraol, v.a.s.is to be made to stand; is to be built.
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osesengall, v.a.s.is to be moved a little bit or ways.
osesengall a kirel el mosesei; olsesei el mong; telkib el odubech.
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sedelall, v.a.s.is to be torn or dismembered.
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techiall, v.a.s.(anus) is to be wiped.
techiall a kirel el metechui; mesuld a but; tuchiur, tuchui, melechui, techiall a btil a ngalek.
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ukall, v.a.s.is to be cut or pushed down.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
chemadechcoconut sap.chemadech (plant) unripe or green; (food) raw or uncooked; be in full standing position when dancing; brand new.
kikoisea clam.merikikoiwavy; bulging in places.
chermallhibiscus (bark used as a rope; leaves used as mulch for taro).chermallhibiscus (bark used as a rope; leaves used as mulch for taro).
rasechblood.rasechbloody.
bobaipapaya tree (including fruit).bobaipapaya tree (including fruit).
techiirhandnet with handle; cloth or screen for pressing coconut milk; sheath at base of coconut frond (used for pressing coconut milk).mekudem a techerel(person who) understands or catches everything.
mechasold woman; titled woman; foreign woman; male's father's sisters; girlfriend; wife.mechasold woman; titled woman; foreign woman; male's father's sisters; girlfriend; wife.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
tngeklel a rengulpeace offering for someone.
berngel a rengulanything discouraging to one's spirit.
olseked er a rengulstick to something (without giving up); be firm.
diak lemesim a rengulstick to one's convictions; not change one's mind.
mereng er a rengulplease; go along with (so as not to hurt feelings).
ngoaol a rengulconfronted with and perplexed by large task or responsibility.
sesuul a rengul(person) undecided.

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