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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

bleng, v.r.s.covered with hand; stopped up.
bleng a mla obeng, metenget; telenget, mengir a ngerel, bleng a telil.
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delbochel, v.r.s.invented; introduced; composed; (blade of tool) chipped.
delbochel a delibech; beches el merruul; ngloik a le kemeldiil a delbochel.
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delebongel, v.r.s.interrupted; killed.
delebongel a diak el llemolem; mla medeb; dobengii a cheliuaiu; delebongel a klengar er ngii a mlokoad, debengel a medal.
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delemumuu, v.r.s.sex-crazy; lustful.
delemumuu a deleberuou.
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klimut, v.r.s.grabbed and thrown down; overpowered.
klimut a blitelek; telilech er a chutem; mla mekimut e le ng mechitechut; kimtengii a sechelil.
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uldai, v.r.s.pulled in.
uldai a mla mudai; mla mekurs er a udai, mla motamet; bilas a mla mudai el mei er a cheldukl; udiil.
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uldanges, v.r.s.praised; honored.
uldanges a mla modanges; kedung a uldanges er a buai; ngmai a odanges me a chetengakl; odengesel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

chemechemall, v.a.s.is to be urinated on.
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chemechemuul, v.a.s.is to be broken into pieces.
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chetuotel, v.a.s.(headware) to be put on; to be inserted or stuck into or onto; to be impaled or plugged in.
chetuotel a klalo el rruul el mechetiut; klalo, lkou a chetuotel; mengetiut a lochang; otuu; osiseb; chetutel, chetutall.
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chiitel, v.a.s.is to be thrown away or abandoned.
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lecheluchel, v.a.s.is to be sawed.
lecheluchel a lechelechall.
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oibekall, v.a.s.is to be broken or smashed through.
oibekall a kirel el moiubek; tmoech er a bitang; kboub a oibekall, oibekii, oiubek, oibekel.
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sersoll, v.a.s.is to be fenced or enclosed.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
mengchongchthick betel nut fiber used for wrapping food, making rain hat, etc.chellibelmengchongchwhite; (woman) beautiful/white-skinned.
kemangetlength (of string, etc.) which exceeds what is needed or expected.kemangettall; long (in time or dimension).
diulareng(someone's) happiness/joy.dmeuhappy; glad; joyful; appreciative.
tutaumorning; this morning.tutaube morning.
ureorwork; job; task.bekureorwork a lot; hard-working; diligent.
chiukl(singing) voice.cheiukl(person) having a good singing voice.
hambunghalf.hambunghalf.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
kesib a rengulangry.
bekokuii a rengulkind; generous.
omai er a rengulhesitate; be unsure about.
bekesbesebek a renguleasily worried; worrisome.
bekesbesib a rengulprone to sweating; easily angered; touchy.
mengedidai er a rengul act stubbornly, scornfully or condescendingly.
ngelekel a rengulfavorite child.

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