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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

cheltiruir, v.r.s.made dizzy (by betel nut).
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chelusem, v.r.s.(mouth) wiped; (hands) wiped of dirt, food, etc.
chelusem a mla mechusem, blutek el ngor, diak lolekoi.
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delul, v.r.s.broiled; roasted; sunburned.
delul a mla medul er a ngau.
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seledem, v.r.s.propositioned; proposed.
seledem a mla mesedem; te seledem er a omenged; sodemii er a klsau; kesedem; sedemel.
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telord, v.r.s.irritated; annoyed; frustrated.
telord a mekngit a rengul; telemall a rengul; mla metord e merael; tordii a bechil, terdel.
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ulengoid, v.r.s.(food) given or exchanged ceremonially; messed up; put in wrong place.
ulengoid a mla merael a betok el chim; mla mongoid a chutem; ulengoid el cheleuid a rolel; ulechoid; cheliseksikd kung; ongidii a chutem, ongoid a udoud, ongidel.
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urrodech, v.r.s.buttoned; inlaid.
urrodech a mla murodech; ngar ngii a urdechel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

kekerongel, v.a.s.is to be watched over or guided.
kekerongel a kirel el mekekar, omes er ngii; me lak le metemall; kokerengii a blil a kelebus, kokar a bangk, mengkar, kekerengel a bang
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kudall, v.a.s.is to be dammed or delayed.
kudall a kirel el mekaud; melecha kaud, koudii a ralm, kmaud a bong, kudel.
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ochidall, v.a.s.is to be messed up.
ochidall a kirel el mochoid, mochetekl, klalo er a skoki a ochidall el osiik a mekull er a llach el klalo.
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oimimall, v.a.s.is to be lowered; (boat) is to be moved out to deep water; (food) is to be brought to meteet.
oimimall a kirel el moimoim; oimimii a bilas el mo er a dmolech; oimoim, olimoim, oimimel; mo er a eou. oimimel; oimimel a oimoim er ngii; olimoim.
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rtangel, v.a.s.is to be pounded, smashed or crushed.
rtangel a kirel el merot; medal a biskang a rtangel, rotengii, remot.
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tiuelechall, v.a.s.is to be thrown at with a stick.
tiuelechall a kirel el metiualech; tiuelechii a iedel; toiualech, meliualech a meradel, tiuelechel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
H.O.(abbrev.) Babeldaob (used pejoratively).H.O.unexperienced in Western ways; ignorant of modern conveniences.
kurstwitching (nervous disorder) .kurstwitching.
ngelloklnodding; dozing (off).olengelloklnod when sleepy; doze off.
hambunghalf.hambunghalf.
chudelgrass.chudelgreen jobfish.
uloechspear(?).uloech(person) in a hurry to go somewhere.
otangcheek.bekotangelhave fat cheeks.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
melekoi a renguldetermined; well-motivated; make rasping or humming sound in the lungs; make humming moise while sleeping; (cat) purr.
smiich a rengulfeel proud about (someone).
rengul a diokangstarch.
Rengulbaititle of chiefs in Imeliik.
omtechei a rengulget back at; do to someone as he does to you.
melechang a llechul a rengulteach (someone) a lesson.
meched a rengulthirsty; impatient; prone to overreact; (deprived and) having strong desire for.

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