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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

chelsimer, v.r.s.closed; confined; locked in (e.g., as punishment).
chelsimer a telengetongel, diak le belkais, diak le nglai a chesmerel; blutek, mla mechesimer; chosmerii er a kelebus, chesmerel.
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delbard, v.r.s.laid crosswise; perpendicular; (speech, behavior) inappropriate.
delbard a diak el llemolem; ka el melemalt, tochedesuch, tbard, kerrekar a delbard er a rael, diberdel.
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seliik, v.r.s.(object or person) looked for or searched for or having been sought after.
seliik a mla mesiik; mla metik, rrechorech el udoud a seliik; smiik; skel.
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uldaob, v.r.s.(klengoes) salted with sea water.
uldaob a mla mo er ngii a daob; ulsar; mdebii a klengoes, mdaob, udebel a klengoes
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ulekrames, v.r.s.made far apart.
ulekrames a mla mukrames; merames; diak el mekudem; dait a ulekrames a delemel.
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ulsiu, v.r.s.(drawer, suitcase, etc.) closed; (clothes) have seam sewn; (fire) fed; (people) incited to fight.
ulsiu a ulsikm; blutek; mla mosiu; ulsiu a berdel a ngerel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bekengall, v.a.s.is to be opened or spread apart.
bekengall a kirel el obok; mkisii, omok a medal, mekengii a chesimer, bekengel.
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cholodall, v.a.s.is to be comforted or consoled.
cholodall a kirel el mechelaod, mengelaod.
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ngebtall, v.a.s.(newborn baby) is to have membrane washed off.
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osesengall, v.a.s.is to be moved a little bit or ways.
osesengall a kirel el mosesei; olsesei el mong; telkib el odubech.
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uchetall, v.a.s.(fishing line) is to be provided with leader.
uchetall a kirel el mochaet; loia uchaet er ngii; mchetii a kereel; mechaet a chetakl, uchetel.
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udochall, v.a.s.(sea) is to be beaten with pole; (fruit) is to be knocked down with pole.
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uduudel, v.a.s.is to be given money or paid.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
chemaiongdragonfly.chemaiongdragonfly.
kelmolmaction of tickling (lightly).mekelmolmticklish; tingling; sensitive.
iluodelstones, coconut shells, or similar objects used as support for cooking pot during serving.iluodelstones, coconut shells, or similar objects used as support for cooking pot during serving.
uidfruit that has fallen off the tree on its own.udall(fishnet) is to be pulled in.
chemaiongdragonfly.chemaiong prone to moving from one boyfriend or girlfriend to another.
kerasuschigger.kerasuschigger.
smuuchscorpion fish (hardly moves in water).smuuchscorpion fish (hardly moves in water).

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
omatek er a rengul restrain ones desire to do something; keep ones desire(s) to oneself.
mesaul a rengulnot feel like.
rrou a rengulsuddenly confused or perplexed.
telecherakl a rengulstubborn; obsessed; determined.
chelimimii a rengulsullen; obstinate; uncooperative.
omerteret a rengulfed up or exasperated with.
ouralmesils a rengulweak-willed.

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