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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

chelsiau, v.r.s.assisted by contribution of food or labor.
chelsiau a mla mechesiau; chosiur, chosiau, Ngaramecherocher a chelsiau.
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delebusech, v.r.s.(conch shell or horn) blown.
delebusech a mla medebusech; debusech; melebusech el mesubed er a eolt, dubsechii, debsechel a eolt.
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kled, v.r.s.directed; organized.
kled a beruadel, madelkled a medal a ungil a rengul; madelkled a klebokel el meloik.
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nglunguuch, v.r.s.prayed to.
nglunguuch a mla mengunguuch; ng nglunguuch me ng ungia rengul; ngunguchel.
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selurech, v.r.s.cleansed or bathed in hot water.
selurech a mla mesurech; surechii a omechell; smurech a ochil, serechel.
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ulsobel, v.r.s.saved, rescued or taken care of.
ulsobel a mla mosobel; beluulechad a ulsobel er a kodellel a ngelekel a Dios; ulsebelii, osobel, osebelel.
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urrekerek, v.r.s.(juice, gravy) reboiled and thickened.
urrekerek a mla morekerek; mla mo medirt; urrekerek el uasech, merkerekii a miich, orekerekel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

chediball, v.a.s.is to be carved, whittled or seduced by flattery.
chediball a kirel el mecheduib, chodibii a itabori, choduib a ordomel; mengeduib a omekord. chedibel a ordomel.
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chesemall, v.a.s.(mouth) is to be wiped; (hands) are to be wiped of dirt, food, etc.
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demedomel, v.a.s.is to be levelled or equalized.
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otechedall, v.a.s.is to be made to give up.
otechedall a kirel el motoched; otechedii, oltoched er ngii er a meringel el tekoi; rullii el tmoched, diak el ungil el otechedall a chad.
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semikel, v.a.s.is to be husked by hand.
semikel a kirel el mesamk; mengai a semkel; kukau a semikel; semikel a klalo el betok a semkel; semsemikel.
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ulochall, v.a.s.is to be prophesied about.
ulochall a kirel el mulaoch; omlaoch er ngii; mlochii a meringel el kodall; mlaoch a klebelung; ulochel.
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usekerall, v.a.s.is to be girded with loincloth; is to be tied around.
usekerall a kirel el musaker; msekerii; loia usekerel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

temamuuimaginary ghost with ugly face.temamuubald-headed.
bikodelhives or rash from allergies; allergic reaction affecting the skin.bikodelhives or rash from allergies; allergic reaction affecting the skin.
britelshakiness; jitters.britel(person) shaky/jittery.
tebullswelling; earth mound.tebullbulging, hanging.
kemangetlength (of string, etc.) which exceeds what is needed or expected.kemangetlength (of string, etc.) which exceeds what is needed or expected.
kodalldeath.diak a kodelleleternal; everlasting.
bodechcurved configuration/shape of boat.obodechcurved; (person) having back curved towards rear.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

suebek a rengulworried; anxious.
seselk a rengulbored; impatient.
dmolech a rengulwise; prudent; careful in planning ahead.
rengul a kerrekarcenter/core of tree.
merechorech a rengulselfish; greedy; stingy.
ngemokel a renguldesirous off; lusting after.
mesbeda a rengul(person) come to realize or accept (fact, etc.).

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