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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

cheleech, v.r.s.(ingredients for betel nut chewing) supplemented with tobacco.
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telukouk, v.r.s.(land) cleared.
telukouk a teluchel; mla metukouk a chutem; mengaml e mesib; toukukii a sersel; tukukel.
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uldum, v.r.s.made to appear.
uldum a mla modum; ulecholt, ngalek a uldum a bdelul er a daob; mla tmoech; odmii, odum, sils a uldum; odmil.
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ulekesebech, v.r.s.controlled; (price) lowered.
ulekesebech a telkib el mo er a bab me a lechub eou; mla mokesebech; mekesebechii a iklel; mekesebech a oruikl e osiik a soal.
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ulsarech, v.r.s.pressed down; pinned onto.
ulsarech a ulsongeb er eou; mla mosarech; ngar er a ulsarechg er a oberaod; oserechii, osarech, oserechel.
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urrael, v.r.s.cracked; fractured.
urrael a soal el obeu; obouch; belatong a urrael; sokol el obeu; urrolel a belatong.
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urrekodel, v.r.s.holding or grasping for a long time.
urrekodel a urreked; orreked
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bengall, v.a.s.is to be broken or cracked.
bengall a kirel el obeu; beongel, mengii, meu a lius, omeu a lius, bengel.
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kersall, v.a.s.is to be pulled, towed or dragged.
kersall a krukl; kirel el mekurs; kursii a mlai, otemetii, kmurs a kerrekar.
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ocheroall, v.a.s.(turtle) is to be turned face up; (clothes) are to be turned inside out.
ocheroall a kirel el mochero; mechereuii, uel a ocheroall; mo dengarech; ocherouel.
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oremkall, v.a.s.(boat, etc.) is to be weighed down.
oremkall a kirel el morumek; mo ruumk; oremkii a bilas, orumek a ert er a rechad, oremkel.
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orsersall, v.a.s.is to be drowned or made to sink.
orsersall a kirel el morsors, locha er a bertakl; orsersii a mechut el diall, orechorech, orsersel.
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siungall, v.a.s.is to be served; is to be dressed up.
siungall a siungel; kirel mesiou; chuodel a siungall; siungii.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
otekliklvertical support beam for buadel whose bottom end lis on imuul.oteklikllying down with feet in air.
bengtpurple colored sweet potato.bengtpurple colored sweet potato.
chemanglarge sea or mangrove crab; Samoan crab.bekechemangsmell of crabs (after cooking or eating crabs).
burekswelling.oburekget dyed or stained with color.
kerasuschigger.kerasuschigger.
chetaubrief rain squall.chetaubrief rain squall.
britelshakiness; jitters.britelshakiness; jitters.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
olengasech er a rengulmake or get (someone) angry.
klou er a renguldetermined.
derengulalso, used a as friendly expression of envy.
diak lemesim a rengulstick to one's convictions; not change one's mind.
melaok a renguladulterous; acquisitive.
ungil er a rengulfine or all right with.
oba a rengulindependent; self-willed.

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