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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

cheliud, v.r.s.twisted; wrung out.
cheliud a ngklel a ta er a bedengel a rrellel a dekool, melamech a cheliud.
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deludeu, v.r.s.bent in many places.
deludeu a betok el deleu; mla medudeu, dour, dmeu a mamed, deul.
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selumes, v.r.s.stuck; pricked.
selumes a rrumes; mla mesumes er a tungd; sumesii, ochil a selumes er a deel; suumes a kukau; smesel.
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ulechur, v.r.s.counted; included.
ulechur a ulecherungel; mla mochur; nglai a ildisel.
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ulekngeltengat, v.r.s.blessed.
ulekngeltengat a uleklusech; mla mukngeltengat; ngeltengat; ngeltengeteel.
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ulingatech, v.r.s.sat on and squashed; won; beaten.
ulingatech a mla moingatech; kall a ulingatech er a ulaol; ulteremed, ultorech; ngalek a oingetechii a beras; oingatech a odoim; oingetechel.
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ultaut, v.r.s.(spear, gun, etc.) aimed at target; (law) enforced; (fire) lighted; (job) started; hooked.
ultaut a mla motaut; uluchel, urreor a ultaut, ngau a ultaut.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

berotel, v.a.s.is to be hidden.
berotel a kirel el obart, omart, diak el tekiungel, kngtil a chad a berotel, mertii, bertel.
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chetuul, v.a.s.(fish) smoked; having the potential of giving off too much smoke.
chetuul a kirel el mechat; techa mengat a ngikel? chotur, chemat a ngikel, chetul.
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ngkuul, v.a.s.is to be transported or moved.
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okngemedall, v.a.s.is to be consumed or used up.
okngemedall a kirel el mokngemed; kirel mo diak; nguemed, usbechel a mekngit el kar a okngemedall.
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otutall, v.a.s.(spear, gun, etc.) is to be aimed at target; (law) is to be enforced; (fire) is to be lighted; (job) is to be started; is to be hooked.
otutall a kirel el motaut; otaut a llechul a rael, otutii a ngau, llechul a rael a otutall; otutel.
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songesongel, v.a.s.(coconut tree) is to be tapped for sap.
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uksoangel, v.a.s.is to be made used to or trained.
uksoangel a kirel el muksau; omeksau er ngii; meruul er ngii el mo smau, mo soal; omeksau, meksongii ngalek; ngalek a uksoangel er a urreor; uksongel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
omecherollwomb; uterus; place where animals breed; birth canal.bekecheroll(woman) fertile/having many children.
kudlouse.kdaolinfested with lice.
tutaumorning; this morning.tutauPalau morning bird.
mudechvomit.bekemudechsmell of vomit.
bengtpurple colored sweet potato.bengtpurple.
chemadechcoconut sap.chemadech (plant) unripe or green; (food) raw or uncooked; be in full standing position when dancing; brand new.
uesvision; sight; view.sekoesperceptive; sharp-minded; acute; sensitive; aware of one's responsibilities or surroundings; capable of looking at something thoroughly or seeing all the angles and possibilities.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
rrou a rengulsuddenly confused or perplexed.
cheremremangel a rengulgreedy; stingy.
mesubed a rengulaccept; be resigned to; learn a lesson; learn from experience.
seselkang a rengulbecoming bored or impatient.
omal er a rengulastonish; amaze; impress; cause admiration.
telematel a rengulpleased; happy.
bekongesengasech a renguleasily angered; excitable.

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