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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

chelid, v.r.s.(neck) turned to one side; (something) twisted or wrung.
chelid a omur; chidir a chiklel, chelid a chiklel, mengid er a chiklel; chelid a telemall el delomel, dait el delebes el cheroid er techel me ng diak el dubech.
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delechel, v.r.s.increased or raised in amount.
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klum, v.r.s.baked in the ground.
klum a kall el ulekmark er a chelsel a chutem; mengum, klum el babii.
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rrodech, v.r.s.tried or aimed at blindly; tricked into giving information.
rrodech a mla merodech; rodechii mla medangch.
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uldermerem, v.r.s.pushed or forced (under water, into ground, etc.).
ulderemerem a mla moderemerem; ulsarech el ultuu er a daob; ert a ulderemerem er a daob; odermeremel.
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ulet, v.r.s.pressed; squeezed; (food) soft (from hitting ground).
ulet a mla mouet; lius a ulet, tul a kerebou a ulet, omet, met, meseos, omeseos.
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ulsengerenger, v.r.s.allowed to go hungry.
ulsengerenger a blechoel el songerenger, smecher er sengerenger; ulsengerenger a sebechel el mad er a sbekekl.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

cheredengall, v.a.s.is to be crumbled or crushed.
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isechemall, v.a.s.is to be held or grasped firmly.
isechemall a kirel el musechem; orekedii e kiresii; diak el isechemall a udoud me a chutem.
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ochebngall, v.a.s.is to be brought to surface of water.
ochebngall a kirel el mochob; mei er a bab; olechob er a mlai, ochebngii a ert el mei er a bebul a daob; ochebngel.
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olutall, v.a.s.is to be returned or sent back.
olutall a oluatel.
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orsersall, v.a.s.is to be drowned or made to sink.
orsersall a kirel el morsors, locha er a bertakl; orsersii a mechut el diall, orechorech, orsersel.
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ukadel, v.a.s.(fish) is to be caught by casting net.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

cheballwhite-leafed taro (yautia); gray/white hair.cheballgray-haired; white-haired.
rubakelder; old man; chief; foreign man; boyfriend; husband.bekerubaksmell like an old man.
cherouwhite mushroom; white scar.cherouhaving a white scar; whitish; Caucasian.
chemaiongdragonfly.chemaiong prone to moving from one boyfriend or girlfriend to another.
kerdikyaws; framboesia.kerdiksuffering from yaws.
ngulasthma.kesengliilasthmatic (permanent condition).
uidglue; resin; fuel for lamp.muduidsticky; adhesive.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

mechese a rengulbecoming surprised.
seselk a rengulbored; impatient.
chelimimuul a rengulchelimimii a rengul
ungial a rengulhappiness; joy.
komeklii a rengul(person) controlling themselves; (person) holding their tongue.
melemalt a rengulfair; just; understanding; good-hearted.
omatek er a rengul restrain ones desire to do something; keep ones desire(s) to oneself.

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