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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

berrokel, v.r.s.spread; stretched out; propagated.
berrokel a mla oberk; mla mesumech; berrokel a ungil el chisel, merekii, merek, berekel.
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blekall, v.r.s.driven; sailed; (person) driven by desire to wander or spend time away from home.
blekall a mla obekall; mekellii a mlai, rengeasek a blekall er a ungil klebesei.
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chelebis, v.r.s.mashed; crushed.
chelebis a mla mechebis; chobisur, chobis a diokang, chebisul a chebis.
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cheleld, v.r.s.knocked out of breath.
cheleld a mla mecheld, chad el ruebet el metilech me ng meengel a telil; mo kedeb a telil.
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telit, v.r.s.pierced (open).
telit a blsibs; mla metit; titir a ilumel; tmit a mengur; melit, titil a ilumel.
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teluchel, v.r.s.carried on the head; (hands) folded on the head, influenced; brainwashed.
teluchel a mla metuchel; orrekorek er a chutem, oltengkou a meluchel er a chutem, redil a telechull a kall; techelel.
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uluud, v.r.s.(fishnet) pulled in.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bekengall, v.a.s.is to be opened or spread apart.
bekengall a kirel el obok; mkisii, omok a medal, mekengii a chesimer, bekengel.
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kdemall, v.a.s.are to be placed close together in space or time.
kdemall a kirel mo mekudem; kudemii, kuudem a sersel a merechorech, kdemel.
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ochudall, v.a.s.is to be looked for.
ochudall a kirel el mochoud; olechoud, osiik; kall me a udoud a ochudall; ochoud, ochudii, ochudel.
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okesebechall, v.a.s.is to be controlled; (price) is to be lowered.
okesebechall a kirel el mokesebech; omekesebech, mekesebechii a medal; mekesebech, okesebechel.
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rimall, v.a.s.is to be collected/gathered and transported.
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terebengall, v.a.s.is to be turned face or top down; is to be stopped.
terebengall a omosech; kirel el meterob; torebengii a omerael; torob a osisebel a mekngit el kar; terebengel.
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udiuul, v.a.s.is to be pulled in.
udiuul a kirel el mudai; mengurs er ngii el oba udai; omdai er ngii; telemall el ert a udiuul.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

siktcluster/bunch of fruit.mesiktbe in a cluster (used only in mesikt el btuch).
uidfruit that has fallen off the tree on its own.udallis to be glued or pasted.
chimhand; arm; front paws (of animal); help; assistance; manual labor; person sent to help.chimempty-handed.
mechasold woman; titled woman; foreign woman; male's father's sisters; girlfriend; wife.mechascoconut at later stage (between medecheduch and metau) when shell blackens and husk turns yellowish brown.
cheolubarnacles.cheolu covered with barnacles.
chetbaelelephantiasis.chetbael swollen from elephantiasis.
hambunghalf.hambunghalf-witted; simple-minded.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

ochemchuml a rengulseething inside with anger or hate.
ngar er a eou a rengul(person is) humble/respectful.
smecher a rengulhomesick.
ouuchel er a rengulregret.
kekere a renguluncomfortable; impatient.
melekoi a renguldetermined; well-motivated; make rasping or humming sound in the lungs; make humming moise while sleeping; (cat) purr.
ralmetaoch a rengulinsensitive; not easily affected; easygoing; casual; prone to avoiding responsibility.

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