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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

delanges, v.r.s.looked up at.
delanges a mla medanges; moues er a bab; dongesii a buuch, dmanges a kebui; melanges, dengesel.
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delemedem, v.r.s.levelled; equalized.
delemedem a mla medemedem; tabesul, chutem a delemedamel.
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delobech, v.r.s.(tree) chopped down; (hand; finger; etc.) cut.
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llik, v.r.s.(bottom of pot, basket) lined with leaves.
llik a ngar er ngii a lkil; mla melik; likir a chelais, lmik a blil a kall.
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ulchit, v.r.s.advanced past; defeated.
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uldai, v.r.s.pulled in.
uldai a mla mudai; mla mekurs er a udai, mla motamet; bilas a mla mudai el mei er a cheldukl; udiil.
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urrachem, v.r.s.mixed.
urrachem a modak; diokang a urrachem.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

brecherechall, v.a.s.is to be brought to boil.
brecherechall a kirel el obrechorech mrecherechii a klengoes, brecherechel.
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chediball, v.a.s.is to be carved, whittled or seduced by flattery.
chediball a kirel el mecheduib, chodibii a itabori, choduib a ordomel; mengeduib a omekord. chedibel a ordomel.
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chesbecheball, v.a.s.(boat) is to have boards of frame put on.
chesbecheball a kirel el mechesbocheb, morngii a chesbocheb, chosbechebii a kboub, mengesbocheb.
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iuekill, v.a.s.is to be surrounded by.
iuekill a kirel el miuekl; iueklii a kurangd, meliuekl er a beluu, iueklel.
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kilungall, v.a.s.is to be enlarged or increased in size.
kilungall a kirel el mo klou; osarech a rengmiu; menglou, mo kiei a rengmiu; rengud a rechad a kilungall, kilungii a rengum, mo diak el sebek a rengum; kilungel a reng.
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lkiil, v.a.s.(bottom of pot; basket) is to be lined with leaves; etc.
lkiil a kirel el melik; loia lkil; likir a chelais er a ngimes, lmik, lkil.
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ngikall, v.a.s.is to be danced.
ngikall a kirel el meloik er ngii; ngera el ngloik a ngikall? karkimenai me a ngera a ngikall?
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
rekungland crab.bekerekungsmell of crabs (after cooking or eating crabs, etc.).
ngelloklnodding; dozing (off).olengelloklnod when sleepy; doze off.
mengchongchthick betel nut fiber used for wrapping food, making rain hat, etc.chellibelmengchongchwhite; (woman) beautiful/white-skinned.
kerisgoiter.keris (neck) swollen with goiter.
bengtpurple colored sweet potato.bengtpurple colored sweet potato.
diablongdevil.diablongterrible; awful; (person) evil.
bobaipapaya tree (including fruit).bobaipapaya tree (including fruit).

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
mekikiid a rengulunsympathetic; uncaring; uninvolved; emotionless.
mekngit er a rengulnot good for; not all right with.
chebosech a rengulboring; dull; poor at speaking.
melib er a renguldecide; make up one's mind.
mengurs er a rengulattract.
ngoaol a rengulconfronted with and perplexed by large task or responsibility.
ngemokel a renguldesirous off; lusting after.

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