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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

chellim, v.r.s.accompanied; escorted.
chellim a mla mechelim; chelmongel me temengelim er ngii cholmengii a medakd, cholim a chelebuul, chelmengel.
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cherretochet, v.r.s.(pandanus leaf) having spines cut off; scratched; hemmed.
cherretochet a mla mechertochet; rrasm a tkul, chortechetii a tet, chortochet, chertechetel.
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cherroid, v.r.s.removed to a distance; moved away.
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selakt, v.r.s.(raft) made; (logs, etc.) tied side by side.
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teloched, v.r.s.wounded or pricked with thorn.
teloched a telemall; teloched el chais a diak le merang me a lechub e ng cheleuid
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uldid, v.r.s.bridged.
uldid a mla mudid; ngar er ngii a did er ngii el omoachel; didil.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

chetuotel, v.a.s.(headware) to be put on; to be inserted or stuck into or onto; to be impaled or plugged in.
chetuotel a klalo el rruul el mechetiut; klalo, lkou a chetuotel; mengetiut a lochang; otuu; osiseb; chetutel, chetutall.
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kilungall, v.a.s.is to be enlarged or increased in size.
kilungall a kirel el mo klou; osarech a rengmiu; menglou, mo kiei a rengmiu; rengud a rechad a kilungall, kilungii a rengum, mo diak el sebek a rengum; kilungel a reng.
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ongbesall, v.a.s.is to be tempted, teased or seduced.
ongbesall a kirel el mongibes; rebis a ongbesall er a klebokel el ngloik, mo sorir; nguibes er a ungil el dil, ongbesel.
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otemengall, v.a.s.is to be poked/stuck out.
otemengall a kirel el motom; olecholt, otom a mederir er a urreor, otom a mederir er a mechesang, otemeel.
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rsull, v.a.s.is to be pierced, stabbed, injected or inoculated.
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temikel, v.a.s.is to be shaved or scraped.
temikel a kirel el mengai; kirel el metamk; tomkii; tuamk a chesemel.
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udochall, v.a.s.(sea) is to be beaten with pole; (fruit) is to be knocked down with pole.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

secheleifriend; companion; boyfriend; girlfriend; lover; term of address from a woman to a group of people.bekesecheleifriendly; having many friends.
otordblunt-headed parrot fish.otordblunt-headed parrot fish.
tangtikebikelsee-saw; teeter-totter.tangtikebikel(object) wobbly or in danger of falling over.
kesaiinsufficient quantity.kesaiinsufficient quantity.
boesgun; blowgun.sekeboesgo shooting a lot; good at shooting.
chedeadjellyfish; nettle.chedead not knowing where to go.
bausmell; odor; scent.bekebau(cooked meat or fish, cooking pot, etc.) foul-smelling.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

melamet er a renguldo things as one pleases.
rrou a rengulsuddenly confused or perplexed.
kedeb a rengulshort tempered; impatient.
blak a rengulhard-working; diligent; eager; attentive; interested in; intent upon; decided on; in favor of.
omult er a rengulconvince; persuade.
blosech a rengulhaving strange feelings about; be suspicious of.
mekikiid a rengulunsympathetic; uncaring; uninvolved; emotionless.

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