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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

bliull, v.r.s.clothed; wrapped; covered with hair.
bliull a blail; mla obail, milii, mail, A ngalek a bliull, bilel.
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klekool, v.r.s.played.
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klum, v.r.s.baked in the ground.
klum a kall el ulekmark er a chelsel a chutem; mengum, klum el babii.
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lliich, v.r.s.(coconut) has meat removed from it.
lliich a mla meliich; nglai er a ulekngall, lius a lliich, liechii, lmiich.
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ulekdengarech, v.r.s.placed or set rightside up; turned face up.
ulekdengarech a mle chebecheb e mla mo dengarech; mla mekedengerechii; diak el chebecheb.
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ulsechem, v.r.s.grabbed with the fist.
ulsechem a mla musechem; ilsechem; orreked el mesisiich; ulsechem er a udoud, isechemii.
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ultamet, v.r.s.pulled at; drawn tight or taut.
ultamet a mla motamet; klurs; ert a ultamet el mong; mla otemetii, otamet a kerrekar, otemetel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bredechall, v.a.s.is to be buttoned or inlaid.
bredechall a kirel el obrodech, merdechii, mrodech, kirel el murodech a bail.
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chesechesemall, v.a.s.is to be dirtied or smeared (with food).
chesechesemall a kirel el mechilt; mechesechusem a bedengel er a kar; chusechesechemii, chiltii, mengesechusem.
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kiuall, v.a.s.is to be picked with pole; is to be attracted/seduced.
kiuall a kirel el mekaiu; koiuii a iedel, kmaiu a meradel; melai er a bab el oba kaiu.
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ngesuul, v.a.s.is to be reduced in number/subtracted.
ngesuul a kirel el mengas; melas; diak lengesuul a ulechucher el udoud, ngosur, ngmai, ngesul.
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oskeskall, v.a.s.is to be pushed vigorously.
oskeskall a kirel el moskosk; kirel elmodubech; oskeskii a cheltelaol el otebedii, cheltelaol a oskeskall; oskeskel.
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sebochel, v.a.s.is to be tried on, adjusted or equalized.
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tichall, v.a.s.is to be lighted or illuminated.
tichall a kirel el metuich; tuiechii a rael; tmuich a ngikel, tichel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
kobengodelvery strong current.kobengodelvery strong current.
chedeadjellyfish; nettle.chedeadjellyfish; nettle.
chelechelouldandruff.chelecheloulhaving dandruff.
tutaumorning; this morning.tutaube morning.
martilionghammer.martiliongclumsy; ungraceful; untalented; (person) blunt or hard-hitting (in his words).
bangchbite.sekebangch(animal, person) prone to biting.
diablongdevil.diablongterrible; awful; (person) evil.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
chebosech a rengulboring; dull; poor at speaking.
titmekl a rengultimid; scared.
smiich a rengulfeel proud about (someone).
melemlim a rengulCurious, prying, snoopy, inquisitive, nosy.
mesbesubed er a rengulprepare someone (psychologically) for something; pave the way for more serious discussion with someone; inform gradually or indirectly.
mengurt a rengulhurt (feelings); make (someone) despair.
diak lodengelii a rengul(person) unaware of his limitations or overestimates his abilities or overextends himself with committments.

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