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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

blisekl, v.r.s.permitted to do something, but grudgingly.
blisekl a blid, omisekl e meruul a diak el soal, bliseklel.
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chelerrungel, v.r.s.made whole; completed; perfected.
chelerrungel a mla mecherrungel; churungel, mla mo merek, temek er a urreor a chelerrungel.
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cheliil, v.r.s.waited for; expected.
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deleu, v.r.s.folded; creased; bent.
deleu a mla medeu; deleuul; diak el melemalt; llemolem, dour a chimal, dmeu a babier, meleu, deul.
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klsamd, v.r.s.(fish) choked.
klsamd a mla mekesamd; nglai a kesemdel.
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selubed, v.r.s.(coconut tree) has cut re-opened to re-initiate sap flow.
selubed a mla mesubed; suubed a ilaot; subedii; sbedel a ilaot.
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telemall, v.r.s.broken; out of order; (relationship) strained.
telemall a telerruud; mla metemall; tomall a klalo; melemall, temellel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

chedelekelekall, v.a.s.is to be blackened.
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chederedall, v.a.s.is to be explained.
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oietall, v.a.s.is to be deflected or turned away.
oietall a kirel moiit; oleiit, oietii, oiit a telechull; nguu el mei er a eou; meluchel a oietall, oietel.
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ongengall, v.a.s.is to be stared at.
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ongengetall, v.a.s.is to be lowered or demoted; is to be held or kept back.
ongengetall a kirel el mo er eou; mo er a uriul; monganget, mesaik a ongengetall a ududel el mo rredemelel a urrereel; ongengetel.
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sersoll, v.a.s.is to be fenced or enclosed.
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udechemall, v.a.s.is to be caught or captured.
udechemall a kirel el mudechem; kirel el motoir el moreked; mdechemii a malk; mdechem a babii, udechemel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
bausmell; odor; scent.bekebau(cooked meat or fish, cooking pot, etc.) foul-smelling.
mechasold woman; titled woman; foreign woman; male's father's sisters; girlfriend; wife.mechascoconut at later stage (between medecheduch and metau) when shell blackens and husk turns yellowish brown.
chiechabhole; hollow; cavity (in tooth).mechiechab(teeth) full of cavities.
bausmell; odor; scent.bekebau(cooked meat or fish, cooking pot, etc.) foul-smelling.
otordblunt-headed parrot fish.otordblunt-headed parrot fish.
iluodelstones, coconut shells, or similar objects used as support for cooking pot during serving.iluodel(people) sitting, standing or arranged in a circle; (stone platform) built circular.
uidfruit that has fallen off the tree on its own.udallis to be glued or pasted.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
telirem a rengulfeelings hurt.
outekangel er a rengulpersevere; force (oneself) to do something.
mengurs er a rengulattract.
kersos a rengulyearning; anxious (to see).
blekebek a rengulpleasant/nice (in personality); congenial.
omekerrau er a rengulconfuse; puzzle.
meleolt a rengul(person) carefree or nonchalant; (person) not easily disturbed or content to let things happen as they may.

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