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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

chelat, v.r.s.smoked (fish).
chelat a ulekmarek el ngikel er a chat; cheltuul; mla mechat, chotur, chemat a ngikel, chetul.
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delidiim, v.r.s.sprayed or splashed all over.
delidiim a mla medidiim; didiim er a daob, delidiim er a daob, dekimes er dersesei el daob; didimel.
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deloko, v.r.s.blown out; inflated; smoked; puffed.
deloko a mla medoko; dokouii, dmoko a dekool, meloko er a ngau, dekoel.
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iliuch, v.r.s.opened; cut open.
iliuch a mla meiiuuch, ruul el diak el telenget, iuechii a mengur, imiuch, iuechel a tuna
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rrot, v.r.s.pounded; smashed; crushed.
rrot a mla merot; bilis a rrot er a mlai, rotengii, motilech; rtengel.
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ulsiseb, v.r.s.put, pushed or forced in.
ulsiseb a mla mosiseb; ultuu; ulsiseb er a urreor; mla osisebii; osiseb; osisebel.
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urrirech, v.r.s.taken; snatched.
urrirech a mla morirech; mla motitech; mla moribech er a chetemel, orribech a diak el chetemel, orirechel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bedkall, v.a.s.is to be trapped or ensnared.
bedkall a kirel el obedikl; medeklii a malk, medikl a beab, bedeklel.
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bedull, v.a.s.is to be extracted; is to be pulled/plucked out.
bedull a kirel el obadel; diokang a bedull. medelii, madel, omadel, bedelel.
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biull, v.a.s.is to be clothed/wrapped.
biull a kirel el obail; omail, milii a ngalek, kall a biull.
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deratel, v.a.s.(taro, etc.) is to be scraped; (cord, etc.) is to be cut through; (relationship) is to be broken off.
deratel a kirel medort; kukau a deratel, merort a kukau, dmort a kukau, dertel.
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ngisall, v.a.s.(ongraol) is to be cooked or boiled in water; (tapioca) just ripe for boiling.
ngisall a kirel el mengiokl; ngisall a ongraol er a kebesengei el diokang.
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oterekall, v.a.s.is to be argued down; is to be moored; is to be ask permission.
oterekall a oterukel; kirel el moturek; olturek, nguu a kengei; oterekall a merreder, oterekel; oterekall a kirel el moturek, oturek a blulekngel; rullii el tmurek; oterekel a ngerel.
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remachel, v.a.s.is to be squeezed (out), grasped or clutched.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
mechasold woman; titled woman; foreign woman; male's father's sisters; girlfriend; wife.mechascoconut at later stage (between medecheduch and metau) when shell blackens and husk turns yellowish brown.
chemarsleak (in something like a boat or a bucket).chemarsleak (in something like a boat or a bucket).
kobesossea horse.kobesossea horse.
chemadechcoconut sap.chemadech (plant) unripe or green; (food) raw or uncooked; be in full standing position when dancing; brand new.
mekealdhot water; hot drink (esp., coffee).mekeald warm; hot.
ngerachelduty; responsibility.bekengerachelresponsible; always attentive to one's duties or obligations.
maiscorn.maisblond.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
chelimimuul a rengulchelimimii a rengul
songerenger a rengulhave a strong desire for; lust after.
olseked er a rengulstick to something (without giving up); be firm.
seitak a rengul(person is) very choosy; picky.
melib er a renguldecide; make up one's mind.
nguibes a renguldesirous of; lusting after.
chelimimii a rengulsullen; obstinate; uncooperative.

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