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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

cheliuert, v.r.s.beaten (with stick, club, etc.).
cheliuert a chellebed; mla mechiuert; mechelebed, chiuertel.
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delenguul, v.r.s.ridiculed; scoffed at.
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delibuk, v.r.s.tied into knot.
delibuk a mla medibuk; omech a eru el klalo; melibuk a odak a erung e doibuk el mo tang el blech, delibkolel.
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derredirk, v.r.s.looked scornfully at.
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selongd, v.r.s.combed; (chain, cord, etc.) broken.
selongd a mla mesongd; songdii; smongd; bdelul a ungil el selongd, sengdel.
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telebakel, v.r.s.patched; (fine) paid.
telebakel a telabek.
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ulchelochel, v.r.s.has had object come at one.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bebael, v.a.s.to be formed, shaped, created, or spanked.
bebael a kirel el obeob, meob a kukau el mo medemedemek, bebel.
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chedechedechaol, v.a.s.is to be talked about or discussed.
chedechedechaol a kirel el mo rengii a tekoi; kirel el mechedecheduch; chedechedechaol el kirel a betok el ngodech el omerellel.
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chelochall, v.a.s.is to be masturbated.
chelochall a sebechel el mechelooch; beras a chelochall.
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oketmekill, v.a.s.is to be arranged or put in a proper place.
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ongesekill, v.a.s.is to be controlled, reduced, limited.
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ririuul, v.a.s.is to be shaken.
ririuul a kirel el meririau; berikd el iedel a ririuul; ririur me ng ruebet a rdechel.
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ukdengesall, v.a.s.is to be made full or satisfied.
ukdengesall a kirel el mukdinges; mekelii el mo medinges; mo diak el sengerenger; mekdengesii, omekdinges er ngii; ulekdengesel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

chadman; person; human being; living being; someone; somebody; anyone; anybody.chadalive; living.
otekliklvertical support beam for buadel whose bottom end lis on imuul.otekliklvertical support beam for buadel whose bottom end lis on imuul.
chemaiongdragonfly.chemaiong prone to moving from one boyfriend or girlfriend to another.
kesaiinsufficient quantity.kesaiinsufficient quantity.
chiukl(singing) voice.cheiukl(person) having a good singing voice.
kudlouse.kdaolinfested with lice.
rirfallen leaves of kebui.merirthe color yellow.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

omech er a rengultake the edge of one's hunger.
songerenger a rengulhave a strong desire for; lust after.
kesib a rengulangry.
rengul a cheluch dregs of coconut oil.
olseked er a rengulstick to something (without giving up); be firm.
obais a rengulget fed up with; become unable to cope with.
ochemchuml a rengulseething inside with anger or hate.

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