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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

blikaks, v.r.s.(ground of garden, etc.) broken or softened.
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blkuuk, v.r.s.puffed up.
blkuuk a mla obkuuk; blsuus, seleches er a eolt, mkukii, omkuuk a blauang, bkukel.
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chelat, v.r.s.praised.
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chelsuar, v.r.s.(face) slapped; slapped in the face.
chelsuar a chelsbad, chellebed a medal, mla mechesuar.
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kloias, v.r.s.(plants) fertilized.
kloias a mla mekoias; mla mukramek; ngar ngii a ramek; ulekramek, kmoias, mengoias, koiesengel a sers.
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teluich, v.r.s.lighted; illuminated.
teluich a mla moues er a mellomes; mla metuich; tmuich a ngikel; tuiechii a medal; meluich er tir; tichel.
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ulekedelad, v.r.s.carried or transmitted with care; (person or animal) spoiled.
ulekedelad a ungil el kldmokl; diak el terrekakl; ngalek a ungil el ulekedelad a okerulel; mla mukedelad.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bemkall, v.a.s.is to be pumped.
bemkall a kirel el obomk; bemkall a ralm, memkii, momk a cheluch.
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ochebecheball, v.a.s.is to be put upside down; is to be turned face down.
ochebecheball a kirel el mochebecheb; omechebecheb er a dengarech; mechebecheb a olekang; ochebechebel a olekang.
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odikall, v.a.s.is to be banished, exiled or sent away.
odikall a kirel el modik; odikii; tuobed er a delengchokl; odik, odkikel.
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ongengedall, v.a.s.is to be lowered by sliding.
ongengedall a kirel el monganged el mei er eou; ongengedii, olenganged, ongengedel a kerrekar.
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orsngall, v.a.s.is to be drowned.
orsngall a kirel el moros; orros, olduleb, orsngii, diak el orsngall a charm; orsngel.
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sbedall, v.a.s.(coconut tree) is to have cut re-opened to re-initiate sap flow.
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utiil, v.a.s.is to be put over fire; is to be put or placed; is to be pounded into ground.
utiil a ngklel a irimd. utiil a klalo el kirel el mouat; omat a irimd; melai a mekoll er a budel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
iluodelstones, coconut shells, or similar objects used as support for cooking pot during serving.iluodel(people) sitting, standing or arranged in a circle; (stone platform) built circular.
chadliver.chedengaolsick with jaundice.
rechorechstealing; theft; robbery; selfishness.delibuksurechorech(knot) tied securely so as not be loosened.
uidfruit that has fallen off the tree on its own.udallis to be glued or pasted.
ngulasthma.kesengliilasthmatic (permanent condition).
beraomfish kept until slightly spoiled and then wrapped and barbequed.beraomfish kept until slightly spoiled and then wrapped and barbequed.
chelechedsmall sea crab.chelechedarea of shallow water (usually exposed at low tide and good for fishing).

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
bebeot a rengulrather undecided about something; not taking something too seriously.
omsa a llechul a rengulteach (someone) a lesson.
kesib a rengulangry.
omak er a rengul(person) takes the edge off (his/her) hunger.
mekngit a rengulfeel sorry/sad about; mean; inconsiderate.
sisiokel a rengulfastidious; particular.
blak a rengulhard-working; diligent; eager; attentive; interested in; intent upon; decided on; in favor of.

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