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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

berriked, v.r.s.(clothes) hung on line, etc.
berriked a ngar a omrekodel, mrekedii, mriked a bail, brekedel.
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chelmekl, v.r.s.(person) stubborn, persistent, determined, etc.
chelmekl a mla mechemekl a rengul; mengemekl, chomeklii, mesisiich el oltaut a loumerang.
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cheluml, v.r.s.(fire) started up or kindled.
cheluml a mla mechuml; ngau a mla kmard.
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delechudech, v.r.s.soiled (with dirt or mud); patched; tar; pitch; asphalt.
delechudech a mla medechudech; delechudech a chemars er a chado duchedechii, duchudech.
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klekar, v.r.s.watched over; guarded; watchful (of one's behavior).
klekar a mengkar; bulis a klekar er a kelebus; omes e omtebechel er ngii; kokerengii, kokar, kekerengel.
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rrodech, v.r.s.tried or aimed at blindly; tricked into giving information.
rrodech a mla merodech; rodechii mla medangch.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

derebakel, v.a.s.is to be thrust at with spear.
derebakel a kirel el mederubek; merrubek er ngii; durebekii a ochab, durubek a ducher, osiik a ngduul.
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desongel, v.a.s.is to be cut, sliced or slit (open).
desongel a kirel el mesekosek; dosengii, dmes a ngikel, meles, desengel.
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disall, v.a.s.is to be increased or added to.
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esemall, v.a.s.is to be tried out/challenged.
esemall a kirel el measem; meues el mo ungil, kirel mo er a omelasem er a uchei er a bo ltobed; esemii, esemel a ngloik.
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kelidel, v.a.s.is to be warmed or heated up.
kelidel a beot el mo mekeald; soal el mekeald; blai el smengt kelidel.
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ldaol, v.a.s.(woman) is to have sexual intercourse.
ldaol a ldall.
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sbechall, v.a.s.is to be broken open.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

iluodelstones, coconut shells, or similar objects used as support for cooking pot during serving.iluodel(people) sitting, standing or arranged in a circle; (stone platform) built circular.
chaseborash.chasebohaving rash or prickly heat.
kelebusjail, prison.kelebusjail, prison.
bausmell; odor; scent.bekebau(cooked meat or fish, cooking pot, etc.) foul-smelling.
bekngiukmold; (food) moldy/mildewed.bekngiukmold; (food) moldy/mildewed.
iluodelstones, coconut shells, or similar objects used as support for cooking pot during serving.iluodelstones, coconut shells, or similar objects used as support for cooking pot during serving.
chimhand; arm; front paws (of animal); help; assistance; manual labor; person sent to help.chimempty-handed.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

ouuchel er a rengulregret.
betik er a rengulone's beloved.
tmurk a rengulsatiated; fed up with.
nguibes a renguldesirous of; lusting after.
chelemekl a rengul(person) holding a grudge; (person) strong, stubborn, persistent, determined.
temetel a rengulpleasing of one's heart.

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