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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

chelabl, v.r.s.carried under arm.
chelabl a chelebill; mla mechabl, choblii a ngalek, chuabl a babier er ngi, cheblel.
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chelsechusem, v.r.s.dirtied or smeared (with food); involved (in a situation).
chelsechusem a bechesechusem, chusechesemii, chusechusem a chimal, chesechesemel a kall; cheisechusem a teloi er a tirudii a bank, ta er a chelsechusem er ngii.
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cheltinget, v.r.s.(pipe, etc.) blocked up.
cheltinget a telenget a medal, mla mechetinget; chitngetii, cheltinget el ollumel.
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klit, v.r.s.pressed with fingers and massaged; pressed against surface with fingers; softened; (fruit) soft (after hitting ground).
klit a mla mekit; ulet, blet a techel, kmit, ulkel a klit me ng meringel, kitir.
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telebenged, v.r.s.(female) having had sexual intercourse from rear.
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telerrob, v.r.s.turned face or top down; stopped.
telerrob a omosech; mla meterob; torebengii a klechedaol, torob a kles; merrob a urreor, terebengel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

chebuul, v.a.s.is to be given gift (sometimes, out of pity); is to be bribed.
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chesbecheball, v.a.s.(boat) is to have boards of frame put on.
chesbecheball a kirel el mechesbocheb, morngii a chesbocheb, chosbechebii a kboub, mengesbocheb.
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ongokall, v.a.s.is to be whistled to.
ongokall a kirel el mongaok ongaok a ngaok, ongokel.
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orebatel, v.a.s.is to be cut down (to size).
orebatel a orebet; orrebet.
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otebedall, v.a.s.is to be taken out.
otebedall a kirel el motobed el mo er a kirel, otebedii er a delengchokl, otobed, otebedel.
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sechudel, v.a.s.temporarily crippled (by muscle cramp, etc.).
sechudel a rekdel a ouach; mekngit el merael; tingoi a ochil; sechedelel.
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tongekill, v.a.s.is to be put or thrown up high.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

kemangetlength (of string, etc.) which exceeds what is needed or expected.kemangetlength (of string, etc.) which exceeds what is needed or expected.
mechasold woman; titled woman; foreign woman; male's father's sisters; girlfriend; wife.mechasget blackened with soot or ink; (pot) get burned or discolored.
burachedskin disease in which white spots spread over body.burachedhaving skin covered with white spots.
besokelringworm.besokelinfected with ringworm.
kosuiperfume.bekekosuismell strongly of perfume.
lebfuzz (on leaf) of plant (e.g.; sugar cane; grass); plant in coffee family; shyness.meleblebitchy; prickly; covered with fuzz of plant.
tutaumorning; this morning.tutaube morning.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

songerenger a rengulhave a strong desire for; lust after.
medemedemek a rengul kind; generous.
mengas er a rengulastonished; surprised.
chelimimuul a rengulchelimimii a rengul
ukab er a rengul(something sentimental) arouses one's emotions (touch someone's figurative heart).
telirem a rengulfeelings hurt.
moded a rengul(person is) easygoing/even-tempered.

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