The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.
Palauan Resulting State Verbs
In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:
- Someone hides something which results in it being hidden.
- In Palauaun, omart is the verb 'to hide,' and blart is the resulting state verb corresponding to the English adjective hidden.
- Someone heats something which results in it being hot.
- In Palauaun, mengeald is the verb 'to heat,' and mekeald is the resulting state verb corresponding to the English adjective hot.
Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:
|blengedakl||, v.r.s.||treated inferiorly; always receiving demands.|
blengedakl a omengedakl; diak le cheleoch.
|bluit||, v.r.s.||(sugar cane) cut.|
bluit a bliatel, mla obuit; mitii, muit, deb a nglai, bitel a deb.
|klaud||, v.r.s.||dammed; delayed.|
klaud a telengetongel; mla mekaud; telenget, ralm a klaud, skoki a klaud er a eolt, kudel.
|selenges||, v.r.s.||(coconut tree) tapped for sap.|
selenges a mla mesenges; ilaot a selenges; songesengii; songes, sengesengel.
|telekuau||, v.r.s.||carried in cupped hands.|
telekuau a kall el diak el delekedek; melekuau a betok el kall a mengeberochel.
Palauan Anticipating State Verbs
Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:
|bekebekall||, v.a.s.||is to be gladdened or made happy.|
bekebekall a kirel el obekebek, mekebekii a medal, rullii a rengul el mo ungil, mo diak le merur; omekebek er ngii, bekebekel.
|bikall||, v.a.s.||is to be raised/outstretched.|
bikall a kirel el oboik; meluoik er ngii el mo deluoik, lild a bikall.
|deratel||, v.a.s.||(taro, etc.) is to be scraped; (cord, etc.) is to be cut through; (relationship) is to be broken off.|
deratel a kirel medort; kukau a deratel, merort a kukau, dmort a kukau, dertel.
|odersall||, v.a.s.||is to be lifted up.|
odersall a kirel modars; chim a odersall el mo er a chad el olengeseu; oderdsii, odars a chimal; odersel.
|orekodel||, v.a.s.||is to be held onto or grasped.|
orekodel a kirel el moreked; orekodel a ngalek; omerael a orekodel e le eolt a meses, orked
State Verbs with Related Nouns
In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.
This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.
Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.
|tutk||wart on sole of foot; disease of kebui leaves.||tutk||pointer; pole (for picking fruit).|
|tutau||morning; this morning.||tutau||be morning.|
|ngul||asthma.||kesengliil||asthmatic (permanent condition).|
|otang||cheek.||bekotangel||have fat cheeks.|
|chim||hand; arm; front paws (of animal); help; assistance; manual labor; person sent to help.||chim||empty-handed.|
|teberoi||shin; (large, triangle-shaped) coconut candy.||teberoi||bow-legged.|
|meduu||male genitals (large).||meduu||male genitals (large).|
Reng Idioms as Adjectives
There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:
|ouralmesils a rengul||weak-willed.|
|bekokuii a rengul||kind; generous.|
|tmuu er a rengul||(something) occurs to (person)/enters (person's) mind.|
|chetellaok a rengul||chetellaok|
|mechuached a rengul||evil; mean; stubborn.|
|beot a rengul||easygoing; nonchalant; unmotivated; lazy.|
|mereng er a rengul||please; go along with (so as not to hurt feelings).|