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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

chelert, v.r.s.defecated on.
chelert a mla mechert; chortii, ngar er ngii a dach er ngii; chertel.
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cheliseksikt, v.r.s.tangled up; involved; confused; ambiguous.
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kledaes, v.r.s.(matter) explained.
kledaes a deledaes; mla mededaes; diak le cheliseksikd; kledesel
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kliai, v.r.s.raised just above surface (but not touching); levitating.
kliai a mla mekiai; mengellael; di telkib el cheroid er a chutem a ochil; kiei el kliai a ochil er a ulaol.
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klsai, v.r.s.decreased; reduced.
klsai a kesai; ngelsonges; klsai er a rechad er a Belau.
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telboid, v.r.s.(lantern etc.) turned on.
telboid a mla metboid; dengki a telboid, tibidii a boes, tiboid a bosir, melboid; tbidel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

berekedall, v.a.s.is to be pasted or glued onto; is to be leaned against.
berekedall a kirel el obereked. mereked a babier, merekedii, omereked er ngii.
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chetekill, v.a.s.is to be held or led by the hand; is to be carried, towed or persuaded; easily persuaded; (woman) easily seduced.
chetekill a beot el mechetakl; di ngera e ng mechetakl; diak a uldesuel; di remurt a ngor; choteklii, cheteklel.
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dkisall, v.a.s.is to be placed on slant.
dkisall a kirel el medkois; rullii el mo dkois, ulitech; smecher a dkisall e moues er a toktang, dkisii, dkisel.
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kereoll, v.a.s.is to be rolled.
kereoll a kirel el mekereel; korelii, mengereel a suld, koreel a suld; kerelel a suld.
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ochelall, v.a.s.(fish) is to be scaled.
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teketokel, v.a.s.is to be constructed, assembled or put together.
teketokel a kirel el meteketek meleketek er ngii; teketokel a kall; toketekii a blai; teketekel.
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titechall, v.a.s.is to be wedged.
titechall a kirel el metitech; loia titechel; titechii a osib; tmitech a oles, melitech; titechel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
smuuchscorpion fish (hardly moves in water).smuuch(person) calm, placid, or unperturbed by problems or challenging circumstances.
cheludechwooden float for fish net; light weight wood used to make corks.cheludechwooden float for fish net; light weight wood used to make corks.
uidfruit that has fallen off the tree on its own.udall(fishnet) is to be pulled in.
secheleifriend; companion; boyfriend; girlfriend; lover; term of address from a woman to a group of people.bekesecheleifriendly; having many friends.
chermallhibiscus (bark used as a rope; leaves used as mulch for taro).chermall having vagina which lubricates quickly.
bausmell; odor; scent.bekebausmell of vagina.
bausmell; odor; scent.bekebau(cooked meat or fish, cooking pot, etc.) foul-smelling.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
mengerar er a rengul criticise; insult; put down; make someone feel ashamed; hurt someone's feelings.
rrou a rengulsuddenly confused or perplexed.
blak a rengulhard-working; diligent; eager; attentive; interested in; intent upon; decided on; in favor of.
medengelii a rengulregain consciousness (after a faint or stroke); (person) self-confident or self-assured; (person) knowing his abilities or capacities.
omtechei a rengulget back at; do to someone as he does to you.
checherd a rengulimpatient; fed up with.
ngar er a eou a rengul(person is) humble/respectful.

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