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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

rrenged, v.r.s.(long object) tied together; joined.
rrenged a rrengodel; llechet, mla merenged; ebakl a rrenged.
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rrumes, v.r.s.poke at; (food) tested.
rrumes a chelsuches; mla merumes; kukau a rrumes, rumesii, ruumes.
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selloakl, v.r.s.grabbed at and shaken or stirred.
selloakl a mla meseloakl; mla mesalo; rrutech er a betok el chim; selloakl el kall a olsecher; soleueklii; solouakl.
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uldois, v.r.s.increased; added to.
uldois a mla mudois; mla morngii a dechelel; remechitechut a obdois a blingelir er a kall; udisel a kelir.
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ulekedelad, v.r.s.carried or transmitted with care; (person or animal) spoiled.
ulekedelad a ungil el kldmokl; diak el terrekakl; ngalek a ungil el ulekedelad a okerulel; mla mukedelad.
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uleketmokl, v.r.s.arranged; put in proper place; neat, well-organized.
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ulngull, v.r.s.having rested or relaxed oneself.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bedoel, v.a.s.(ball, etc.) is to be caught; is to be grabbed.
bedoel a kirel el obed; bduu a bedoel. medir a bduu, med, omed, bedeel a bduu.
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bedull, v.a.s.is to be extracted; is to be pulled/plucked out.
bedull a kirel el obadel; diokang a bedull. medelii, madel, omadel, bedelel.
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chuomel, v.a.s.is to be wrapped in leaves or betel nut fiber and baked.
chuomel a kirel el mechuum, chuemii, chuum a ngikel.
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kedngiil, v.a.s.is to be tamed.
kedngiil a kirel el mekedmokl el mo kedung; kudngir a ngalek, kudung, rullii el mo kedung.
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ngemodel, v.a.s.is to be washed off or mopped.
ngemodel a kirel el mengemed; ngomedii a ulaol; nguemed a tebel, melemed; ngemedel.
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ngesuul, v.a.s.is to be reduced in number/subtracted.
ngesuul a kirel el mengas; melas; diak lengesuul a ulechucher el udoud, ngosur, ngmai, ngesul.
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orechedall, v.a.s.is to be rushed.
orechedall a orechudel; kirel el mereched, orechedii a mlai, oreched a kles; orechedel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
chaziflavor, taste.chazitasty.
chemadechcoconut sap.chemadechcoconut sap.
mechasold woman; titled woman; foreign woman; male's father's sisters; girlfriend; wife.mechasold woman; titled woman; foreign woman; male's father's sisters; girlfriend; wife.
tebekbukrayfish.tebekbuk(skin of shin) rough.
bobaipapaya tree (including fruit).bobaidull; slow-witted.
kimtype of large clam; female genitals.bekekimsmell of clams (after cleaning or cooking clams).
bausmell; odor; scent.bekebau(cooked meat or fish, cooking pot, etc.) foul-smelling.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
orrechorech a rengulextremely angry; wild with anger.
melai er a rengulpersuade.
omekerrau er a rengulconfuse; puzzle.
menglou er a rengultry to make (someone, oneself) patient; assure; take edge of one's hunger.
doaoch a rengulindecisive; fickle; inconsistent; prone to changing one's mind.
klou a rengulpatient; confident.
diak a rengulinconsiderate; impolite.

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