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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

cheliuetokl, v.r.s.wrung out; twisted.
cheliuetokl a cheliud.
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chelsiau, v.r.s.assisted by contribution of food or labor.
chelsiau a mla mechesiau; chosiur, chosiau, Ngaramecherocher a chelsiau.
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klikiid, v.r.s.absolved or purified of; emptied.
klikiid a beches; mekikiid, diak el chelsechusem er a mekngit el omeruul; deledaes, klikiid er a ultelechakl, kikidii, kmikiid, kikidel.
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ngelsakl, v.r.s.divided; separated; (wood) removed from fire; moved out of the way.
ngelsakl a chacheroid; diak lulturek; idungel a ngelsakl me a ngau a ulekoad; ngoseklii, ngosakl, ngeseklel.
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teluk, v.r.s.cut; measured.
teluk a delobech; mla metuk; medebes; tukur a kerrekar; tmuk a ngikel; tkul.
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uloch, v.r.s.stepped on and crushed; crouched down.
uloch a berrotel; mechengii er a delul a chudel; uloch e omdidm er a merechorech.
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urrael, v.r.s.(animal) led; (boat, car etc.) driven.
urrael a mla morael; mla orolii a mesil, mla orael a kerbou; orolel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

chesemall, v.a.s.(mouth) is to be wiped; (hands) are to be wiped of dirt, food, etc.
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chetikikall, v.a.s.is to be tempted or led astray.
chetikikall a kirel el mechetikaik; choitikikii a ngalek, mengetikaik er a mesaik el mo ourreor, chetikikel.
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chitemetall, v.a.s.(hand) is to be closed to make fist; is to be crushed into ball.
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dbokel, v.a.s.is to be kicked (away) or swept away or fended off.
dbokel a kirel el medibek; dibekii a bduu, duibek, melibek a bduu el olab a uach, dbekel.
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olutall, v.a.s.is to be returned or sent back.
olutall a oluatel.
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soechel, v.a.s.is to be broken off.
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utichioll, v.a.s.is to be changed, replaced or succeeded.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
chermallhibiscus (bark used as a rope; leaves used as mulch for taro).chermallPalauan money in form of green or blue glass beads.
kesaiinsufficient quantity.kesaiinsufficient; not enough; few.
chelechelouldandruff.chelecheloulhaving dandruff.
bsibsdrill; termite.teribisibsfull of holes.
chullrain; rainy season.chullrain; rainy season.
otekliklvertical support beam for buadel whose bottom end lis on imuul.oteklikllying down with feet in air.
chudelgrass.chudelgreen jobfish.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
orrechorech a rengulextremely angry; wild with anger.
dmolech a rengulwise; prudent; careful in planning ahead.
selorech a rengulcondescending.
temetel a rengulpleasing of one's heart.
merat a renguldeeply disappointed or hurt.
ilkelkel a rengulhis stupidity.
menglou er a rengultry to make (someone, oneself) patient; assure; take edge of one's hunger.

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