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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

bluks, v.r.s.(spearhead) pounded and flattened; (lips = ngor) pursed.
bluks a mla obuks; bluks a ngerel, chelisngull, meksii, beksel a ngerel.
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blult, v.r.s.turned over/inside out; translated.
blult a ulechero, mla obult, bellutel a bilel; mult, meltii a babier, beltel a bail.
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chelabl, v.r.s.carried under arm.
chelabl a chelebill; mla mechabl, choblii a ngalek, chuabl a babier er ngi, cheblel.
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cheleld, v.r.s.knocked out of breath.
cheleld a mla mecheld, chad el ruebet el metilech me ng meengel a telil; mo kedeb a telil.
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chelsimer, v.r.s.closed; confined; locked in (e.g., as punishment).
chelsimer a telengetongel, diak le belkais, diak le nglai a chesmerel; blutek, mla mechesimer; chosmerii er a kelebus, chesmerel.
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ulechadu, v.r.s.cut with scissors; picked up with tongs.
ulechadu a mla mochadu; delebes er a ochadu, mecheduii, mechadu a mamed, ocheduel a bail.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

buchall, v.a.s.is to be split or cracked.
buchall a bouechel; kirel el obouch; omouch a idungel, mouch, buchel a bambuu.
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chedermotall, v.a.s.(water) is to be stirred or agitated.
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denguoll, v.a.s.is to be ridiculed (usually for incest).
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koesengall, v.a.s.(plants) are to be fertilized.
koesengall a kirel el mekoeas; locha ramek; koesengii, mengoeas er ngii.
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rengodel, v.a.s.(long objects) are to be tied together.
rengodel a kirel el merenged; rongedii a chebechiil, ungil el deleongel er a Merikel me a Belau a rengodel; rengedel.
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temikel, v.a.s.is to be shaved or scraped.
temikel a kirel el mengai; kirel el metamk; tomkii; tuamk a chesemel.
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tetengall, v.a.s.is to be widened or opened wide.
tetengall a kirel mo meteteu; tmetengii a ngerel; tmeteu a ngerir, tengel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
ngelloklnodding; dozing (off).olengelloklslow-moving; sluggish.
burekswelling.oburekget dyed or stained with color.
cherollbirth; birthday.ulemcheroll(woman) having already borne children.
cherouwhite mushroom; white scar.cherouhaving a white scar; whitish; Caucasian.
meduumale genitals (large).meduubreadfruit.
ngikelfish.bekengikelsmell of fish.
bekngiukmold; (food) moldy/mildewed.bekngiukmold; (food) moldy/mildewed.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
mesisiich a rengulstrong-willed; motivated; determined; hard-working.
merechorech a rengulselfish; greedy; stingy.
songerenger a rengulhave a strong desire for; lust after.
cheberdil a rengulobject of one's feelings/affections.
bechelechelingaol a rengulselfish; greedy; stingy; self-centered.
Dirrengulbaititle of feminine counterpart or assistant to chief in Imeliik.
betachel a rengulis to be pleased/satisfied/appeased; content.

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