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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

bloech, v.r.s.(long object) thrown.
bloech a mla oboech; uloech a bloech er a chetkongel; mechii a uloech, moech a biskang, bechel.
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chelas, v.r.s.blackened with soot or ink; (pot) burned or discolored.
chelas a delul; mla mechas; chosir, chemas a ngeliokl.
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chelat, v.r.s.smoked (fish).
chelat a ulekmarek el ngikel er a chat; cheltuul; mla mechat, chotur, chemat a ngikel, chetul.
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cheldull, v.r.s.collected; assembled.
cheldull a chelludel; uldak el rokui; mla mechudel; mengudel, chedelel.
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telbotb, v.r.s.(long object) divided or split into small pieces, strips.
telbotb a mla metbotb; tibetbii a olukl, melbotb a besebes; tibotb, tbetbel.
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ulchib, v.r.s.deflected; avoided; (teeth of saw) restored.
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urrael, v.r.s.(animal) led; (boat, car etc.) driven.
urrael a mla morael; mla orolii a mesil, mla orael a kerbou; orolel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

chelball, v.a.s.(outer surface of betel nut fiber) is to be stripped off; (wood) is to be whittled.
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doechel, v.a.s.is to be cut or wounded.
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lkiil, v.a.s.(bottom of pot; basket) is to be lined with leaves; etc.
lkiil a kirel el melik; loia lkil; likir a chelais er a ngimes, lmik, lkil.
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ngesekill, v.a.s.is to be divided, separated or moved out of the way; (wood) is to be removed from fire.
ngesekill a kirel mengesakl; melsakl, idungel a ngesekill; ngosakl; mo chacheroid; ngeseklel.
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ongkengkall, v.a.s.is to be pushed down or made fall; is to be torn down.
ongkengkall a kirel el mongkangk; ongkangk a mechut el blai el me er a chutem; ongkengkii a chutem el mei er rael; ongkengkel.
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redall, v.a.s.(child) is to be adopted; (pot) is to be lifted from fire.
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urechemall, v.a.s.is to be mixed.
urechemall a kirel murachem; omrachem a diokang er a brak, meruul a billum; urechemel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
oreomelforest; woods.chereomeloreomel
chetbaelelephantiasis.chetbael swollen from elephantiasis.
rubakelder; old man; chief; foreign man; boyfriend; husband.rubakelder; old man; chief; foreign man; boyfriend; husband.
chaziflavor, taste.chazitasty.
berechsmell of raw fish.bekeberechsmell of the sea or raw fish.
cheballwhite-leafed taro (yautia); gray/white hair.cheballwhite-leafed taro (yautia); gray/white hair.
chemaiongdragonfly.chemaiong prone to moving from one boyfriend or girlfriend to another.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
medemedemek a rengul kind; generous.
kersos a rengulyearning; anxious (to see).
dmeu a rengulhappy; glad; joyful; appreciative.
omatek er a rengul restrain ones desire to do something; keep ones desire(s) to oneself.
turk a rengulturk
betachel a rengulis to be pleased/satisfied/appeased; content.
mengurs er a rengulattract.

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