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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

cheltikaik, v.r.s.tempted; led astray.
cheltikaik a cheltakl; cheltekill, cheltimaim er a rengelekel.
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rrederd, v.r.s.stepped on; (bicycle) peddled.
rrederd a mla merderd; selarech, dellomel a rrederd er a mlai; roderd, rderdel a dellomel.
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selcheseb, v.r.s.ladled out.
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seluld, v.r.s.erased; dried or wiped off.
seluld a mla mesuld; tolechoi a seluld a bedengel; suldii, smuld a llechukl; seldel.
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ulekdereborb, v.r.s.made to sit like a man.
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ulekses, v.r.s.(child) active/diligent.
ulekses a mla mukses; meses er a ungil el ulecheliu; ungil el omelekoi a meksesengii a chad; omekses, uksesengel.
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ulengoid, v.r.s.(food) given or exchanged ceremonially; messed up; put in wrong place.
ulengoid a mla merael a betok el chim; mla mongoid a chutem; ulengoid el cheleuid a rolel; ulechoid; cheliseksikd kung; ongidii a chutem, ongoid a udoud, ongidel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

blsall, v.a.s.is to be punished for having violated a restriction.
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bretall, v.a.s.is to be shaken.
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kloaol, v.a.s.is to be grabbed at and squeezed or kneaded; (taro patch) is to be prepared.
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oietall, v.a.s.is to be deflected or turned away.
oietall a kirel moiit; oleiit, oietii, oiit a telechull; nguu el mei er a eou; meluchel a oietall, oietel.
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tetael, v.a.s.is to be pounded.
tetael a kirel el meteot; toetii a deel; toeot a kerrekar; meleot er a blai.
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uksecherall, v.a.s.is to be made sick.
uksecherall a kirel el muksecher; meksecherii; diak el uksecherall a chad me a charem le ng mekull.
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usesuall, v.a.s.is to be obtain through barter or trade.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

chaseborash.chasebohaving rash or prickly heat.
mechasold woman; titled woman; foreign woman; male's father's sisters; girlfriend; wife.mechasold woman; titled woman; foreign woman; male's father's sisters; girlfriend; wife.
kerasuschigger.kerasusbitten by chiggers.
chelsebengoshandsomeness.chesbengoshandsome; beautiful.
H.O.(abbrev.) Babeldaob (used pejoratively).H.O.(abbrev.) Babeldaob (used pejoratively).
tebullswelling; earth mound.tebullbulging, hanging.
cheolubarnacles.cheolu covered with barnacles.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

mengeokl er a rengulburden; bother; cause concern; weigh on.
kikiongel a rengul(person is) obstinate/uncooperative; sullen.
mekreos a rengulmiserly; avaricious; selfish.
ngelekel a rengulfavorite child.
mengerar er a rengul criticise; insult; put down; make someone feel ashamed; hurt someone's feelings.
kedidai a rengulstubborn; scornful; condescending.
olturk a rengulsatiate; make someone give up (from fatigue); get one's fill of; insult continuously or mercilessly; let someone really have it.

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