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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

blus, v.r.s.tied into bundle; pulled vigorously; grabbed.
blus a mla obus; mesemosem, medibuk, blus a kall, mesngii, mus, besngel a kall.
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kliut, v.r.s.(weeds, grass) cut; (garden, village, road, etc.) cleaned up.
kliut a mla mekiut; kluotel, nglaml e rriik; mla mekedmokl el mo mededaes; kiuetii a beluu, kmiut a blai, kutel.
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kloias, v.r.s.(plants) fertilized.
kloias a mla mekoias; mla mukramek; ngar ngii a ramek; ulekramek, kmoias, mengoias, koiesengel a sers.
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klsamd, v.r.s.(fish) choked.
klsamd a mla mekesamd; nglai a kesemdel.
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seluld, v.r.s.erased; dried or wiped off.
seluld a mla mesuld; tolechoi a seluld a bedengel; suldii, smuld a llechukl; seldel.
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telboid, v.r.s.(lantern etc.) turned on.
telboid a mla metboid; dengki a telboid, tibidii a boes, tiboid a bosir, melboid; tbidel.
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ulkibetiekl, v.r.s.startled; scared; surprised.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

chesechaol, v.a.s.are to be threaded/strung; always wandering from house to house.
chesechaol a chad el soal el mengesuch; merael a blai, di omais el diak el ultebechel.
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kebikl, v.a.s.is to be hung.
kebikl a kirel el mekabs; metecherakl, kobsii, kuabs a tuu, kebsel.
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okodongall, v.a.s.is to be called.
okodongall a kirel el mokedong; mekedongii, mekedong; oleker
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ongesechekill, v.a.s.(pants, etc.) are to be pulled up; is to be moved up to particular position; is to be praised or elevated.
ongesechekill a kirel el mongesechekl; rredemelel a mo er a bab; ongesecheklii, ongesecheklel.
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rdall, v.a.s.(flowers, etc.) are to be picked.
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smechekill, v.a.s.is to be put in order, corrected or improved.
smechekill a kirel mesmechokl; sumecheklii a rengul, sumechokl a chebirukel el mo melemalt; smecheklel.
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tebidall, v.a.s.(lantern, etc.) is to be turned on.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

besbastrash; rubbish; litter; debris.mekesbesiil
chadman; person; human being; living being; someone; somebody; anyone; anybody.chadliver.
berechsmell of raw fish.bekeberechsmell of the sea or raw fish.
tengolldownward slope; descent.tengolldownward slope; descent.
lusechluck.melusechalways lucky.
chadliver.chedengaolsick with jaundice.
mechasold woman; titled woman; foreign woman; male's father's sisters; girlfriend; wife.mechashaving the qualities of an old woman.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

ochemchuml a rengulseething inside with anger or hate.
mengurs er a rengulattract.
uldellomel a rengulresponsible; purposeful; mature.
melekoi a renguldetermined; well-motivated; make rasping or humming sound in the lungs; make humming moise while sleeping; (cat) purr.
olturk a rengulsatiate; make someone give up (from fatigue); get one's fill of; insult continuously or mercilessly; let someone really have it.
medemedemek a rengul kind; generous.
titmekl a rengultimid; scared.

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