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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

blechit, v.r.s.extracted; extirpated.
blechit a mla obechit , mengai, mechetir, mechit a medal a ngikel.
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blibii, v.r.s.sorted out.
blibii a mla obibii; merurous, betok el blii, rrurous, omii, bingel.
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blukel, v.r.s.cut or pushed down.
blukel a ulukel; mla meukel, a lius a blukel, mkelii, ukelel.
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cheluum, v.r.s.wrapped in leaves or betel nut fiber and baked.
cheluum a cheluomel el ngikel.
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klsekes, v.r.s.(chant, lullaby, etc.) sung.
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ngelmors, v.r.s.extracted; picked or pulled out.
ngelmors a mla mengmors; mengai er a ulechull; ngelmors a bambuu; ngimersii a oluches; ngimersel.
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ulekbat, v.r.s.(something) hidden or hard to find.
ulekbat a meringel el osiik; bulis a omekbat er a olsiseb mekngit el kar er a Belau; ulekbat er a milosii a president; mla mukbat.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

brukel, v.a.s.is to be dyed or colored.
brukel a kirel el oburek; omurek, mrekii a bail, brekel a such.
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cherdechall, v.a.s.is to be complained about.
cherdechall a kirel el mecherodech, chordechii, mengedecheduch el kirel, cherdechall a osisebel a mekngit el kar.
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doudoall, v.a.s.is to be patted or calmed.
doudoall a kirel el medeuodo; mokebai, douedeuii a beluu el chelellak; cholleklii, meleuodo er a rebuik a er a utekengel a ta er a beluu.
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oimimall, v.a.s.is to be lowered; (boat) is to be moved out to deep water; (food) is to be brought to meteet.
oimimall a kirel el moimoim; oimimii a bilas el mo er a dmolech; oimoim, olimoim, oimimel; mo er a eou. oimimel; oimimel a oimoim er ngii; olimoim.
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okedeldaol, v.a.s.is to be carried or transmitted with care; fragile; (person, thing, matter, problem) delicate; (person, situation) requiring special care.
okedeldaol a kirel el kerekikl er ngii; mukedelad; meringel kedmekill; ngalek a okedeldaol, mekedeldar, mekedelad, okedeldal a ngalek.
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osisall, v.a.s.(money) is to be pawned or pledged; is to be leaned against.
osisall a kirel el mosirs; mo smirs er a kingall; osirs a biskang el mo diak el ulukel; osisel.
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reall, v.a.s.(particular distance) is to be walked, traveled or covered.
reall a kirel el merael; ng reall a kekemanget e mochu er a Ngerechelong; remolii.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
cheolubarnacles.cheolu covered with barnacles.
chaziflavor, taste.chazitasty.
mbesaoldrool; spittle.mbesaoldrool; spittle.
mekealdhot water; hot drink (esp., coffee).mekeald warm; hot.
rechorechstealing; theft; robbery; selfishness.delibuksurechorech(knot) tied securely so as not be loosened.
bangikoibutterfly; moth.bangikoibutterfly; moth.
brotechclapping; wooden paddle used as war weapon; applause; praise.bekebrotechprone to slapping.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
telirem a rengulfeelings hurt.
omak er a rengul(person) takes the edge off (his/her) hunger.
ouedikel a rengulnervous; worried.
kekere a renguluncomfortable; impatient.
cheldeng a rengulconfused; surprised; stubborn; dull-witted; slow (in understanding).
beltik a rengulbetik a rengul
chelimimuul a rengulchelimimii a rengul

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