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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

blodech, v.r.s.picked up with fingers.
blodech a mla obodech; nglai er a cheldengelel a chim, medechii, modech, bedechel.
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chelerrumet, v.r.s.washed or pumped out.
chelerrumet a mla mecherumet; nglatech, churemetii a olekang, churumet, cheremetel.
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chelsuar, v.r.s.(face) slapped; slapped in the face.
chelsuar a chelsbad, chellebed a medal, mla mechesuar.
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ilasem, v.r.s.tried out; challenged.
ilasem a mla measem; ulsemuul, esemii a ngloik, melasem.
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rrad, v.r.s.(flowers; etc.) picked.
rrad a mla merad; nglai a kebui a remad, redil a kebui.
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selubed, v.r.s.(coconut tree) has cut re-opened to re-initiate sap flow.
selubed a mla mesubed; suubed a ilaot; subedii; sbedel a ilaot.
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telemall, v.r.s.broken; out of order; (relationship) strained.
telemall a telerruud; mla metemall; tomall a klalo; melemall, temellel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

diberdall, v.a.s.is to be laid crosswise.
diberdall kirel el medbard; diak le llemolem; mo delbard, diberdii a bambuu er a rael el melenget.
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kerioll, v.a.s.(person) is to be reminded of debt; (loan, etc.) is to be recalled.
kerioll a kirel el mekeriil; korilii, mengeriil a medal a udoud; koriil a udoud, blals a kerioll, kerilel.
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kiutall, v.a.s.(weeds; grass) is to be cut; (garden; village; road; etc.) is to be cleaned up.
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osiaol, v.a.s.(drawer, suitcase, etc.) is to be closed; (clothes) are to have seam sewn; (fire) is to be fed.
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rsull, v.a.s.is to be pierced, stabbed, injected or inoculated.
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temikel, v.a.s.is to be shaved or scraped.
temikel a kirel el mengai; kirel el metamk; tomkii; tuamk a chesemel.
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udall, v.a.s.is to be glued or pasted.
udall a kirel el obuid, meuid; mo er ngii a uuid; babier a udall; mudii a babier; muid, udel
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
klukuktomorrow; the next or following day.klukuk be tomorrow; be the next or following day.
kldolsfatness; thickness.kedols(round object) fat, thick or wide. Commonly used to describe betelnuts and coconuts.
bsibsdrill; termite.teribisibsfull of holes.
cheolubarnacles.cheolu covered with barnacles.
telengtungdwild tamarind; lead tree.telengtungdwoven with small weave.
ngulasthma.ngulasthmatic; suffering from a bout of asthma.
chedechuulknack/magical power for doing things; blueprint; plan (for house, bai, etc).chedechuulknack/magical power for doing things; blueprint; plan (for house, bai, etc).

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
ungil er a rengulfine or all right with.
melekoi a renguldetermined; well-motivated; make rasping or humming sound in the lungs; make humming moise while sleeping; (cat) purr.
kngtil a rengul(someone's) being mean or feeling sad or frustrated.
milkolk a rengul(person is) stupid.
omichoech a rengul(stomach) grumble, talk or gurgle (especially from hunger); (person) feel excited.
ngoaol a rengulconfronted with and perplexed by large task or responsibility.
merusech a rengulrepentant.

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