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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

kerroker, v.r.s.(food) removed from pot completely.
kerroker a mla mekeroker; mla mengai el rokui; bachachau, korekerii a olekang, koroker, kerekerel.
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klboub, v.r.s.(house) walled.
klboub a klbokb; mla mekboub; ngar er ngii a kboub, kibekbii, kiboub, kbekbel.
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klemudel, v.r.s.(hair) cut; (shrubs, etc.) trimmed; (string, etc.) cut.
klimd a klmudel; delebes a cheiul mla mekimd, kimdii, kuimd a cheiul, kemdel.
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rrumes, v.r.s.poke at; (food) tested.
rrumes a chelsuches; mla merumes; kukau a rrumes, rumesii, ruumes.
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teliakl, v.r.s.(cord, etc.) knotted to record date.
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uldik, v.r.s.banished; exiled; sent away.
uldik a ultobed; mla modik; mla motobed, odikii er a blai; mla dmik; odikel.
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urresors, v.r.s.drowned; made to sink.
urresors a mla rusors; mla morsors; ngar er a chelsel a daob, urresors el mlai; orsesii, orsors, orsersel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

iuochel, v.a.s.is to be opened or cut open.
iuochel a kirel el meiuch; meliuch a mengur, imuich a mekebud.
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odengesall, v.a.s.is to be praised or honored; praiseworthy.
odengesall a kirel a chetengakl; kirel el modanges; odengesii a ungil merreder; odanges, odengesel.
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sikesall, v.a.s.(raft, canoe, etc.) is to be poled.
sikesall a kirel el mesikes; sikesii a mlai; smikes, melikes a brer; sikesel a brer.
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titiuul, v.a.s.is to be rolled.
titiuul a kirel el metitai; melitai er ngii; titiuul a bduu.
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udall, v.a.s.(fishnet) is to be pulled in.
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udidall, v.a.s.is to be bridged.
udidall a kirel el mudid; loia did er ngii; omdid er a toachelmid; mdidar, omoachel a udidal a delebechel er a didall.
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uluoll, v.a.s.(house) is to have floor put on.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
bisechwild taro (makes mouth itchy).bisechfish with black and yellow stripes (makes mouth itchy).
cheremrumtype of sea cucumber; trepang.bekecheremrumsmell of sea cucumber.
bausmell; odor; scent.bekebau(cooked meat or fish, cooking pot, etc.) foul-smelling.
cheisechpermanent stain.cheisechpermanent stain.
chemanglarge sea or mangrove crab; Samoan crab.bekechemangsmell of crabs (after cooking or eating crabs).
rechorechstealing; theft; robbery; selfishness.delibuksurechorech(knot) tied securely so as not be loosened.
karmasuuscowfish.karmasuuscowfish.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
telirem a rengulfeelings hurt.
mengedidai er a rengul act stubbornly, scornfully or condescendingly.
chidirengulchaidirengul
checherd a rengulimpatient; fed up with.
ochemchuml a rengulseething inside with anger or hate.
outekangel er a rengulpersevere; force (oneself) to do something.
ulserechakl a rengulcalm; unexcitable.

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