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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

blikaks, v.r.s.(ground of garden, etc.) broken or softened.
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bliull, v.r.s.clothed; wrapped; covered with hair.
bliull a blail; mla obail, milii, mail, A ngalek a bliull, bilel.
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bloid, v.r.s.travelled between.
bloid a mla oboid; blais a beluu, Belau a bloid er a rengebard, midii, moid, bidel.
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uleksebek, v.r.s.made to fly.
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ulengeseu, v.r.s.helped; assisted.
ulengeseu a a ngeso; mla mongeseu er a udoud; olengeseu er a chim; ulengeseu er a chelebuul; ulengeseuil.
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ulengkongk, v.r.s.pushed down; made to fall; torn down.
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ulskosk, v.r.s.pushed vigorously.
ulskosk a mla moskosk; mla modubech; uldubech el mong; oskeskii, olskosk er ngii, oskeskel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

chediball, v.a.s.is to be carved, whittled or seduced by flattery.
chediball a kirel el mecheduib, chodibii a itabori, choduib a ordomel; mengeduib a omekord. chedibel a ordomel.
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chesmerall, v.a.s.is to be closed, confined or locked in (e.g. as punishment).
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dkoel, v.a.s.is to be supported or propped up.
dkoel a kirel el medik; dikir, kmedii, klok a dkoel er a tebel.
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kldall, v.a.s.is to be pinched (with fingernails).
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ochidall, v.a.s.is to be messed up.
ochidall a kirel el mochoid, mochetekl, klalo er a skoki a ochidall el osiik a mekull er a llach el klalo.
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odersall, v.a.s.is to be lifted up.
odersall a kirel modars; chim a odersall el mo er a chad el olengeseu; oderdsii, odars a chimal; odersel.
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tingetall, v.a.s.is to be plugged up.
tingetall a dengobel; kirel el metinget; tingetii, tminget a butiliang.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

cherouwhite mushroom; white scar.cherouhaving a white scar; whitish; Caucasian.
tebekbukrayfish.tebekbuk(skin of shin) rough.
cheisechpermanent stain.cheisechstained (permanently from betel nut juice; banana juice; etc.).
rirfallen leaves of kebui.merirthe color yellow.
mekealdhot water; hot drink (esp., coffee).mekeald warm; hot.
oreomelforest; woods.chereomeloreomel
bukcorner; angle; joint; node.bkebkuulhaving many nodes; rough-edged; (shin of leg) have bumpy surface.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

nguibes a renguldesirous of; lusting after.
chelimimuul a rengulchelimimii a rengul
blak a rengulhard-working; diligent; eager; attentive; interested in; intent upon; decided on; in favor of.
outekangel er a rengulpersevere; force (oneself) to do something.
olsiich er a rengultake pleasure in someone else's pain, difficulties, problems, etc.
melatk a rengulconsider someone's feelings.
mimokl a rengulbroad-minded.

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