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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

berriked, v.r.s.(clothes) hung on line, etc.
berriked a ngar a omrekodel, mrekedii, mriked a bail, brekedel.
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blengodel, v.r.s.put or held on or against.
blengodel a blenged.
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kloir, v.r.s.(hair, etc.) evened out by cutting; (person) emulated.
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klsokes, v.r.s.fished out.
klsokes a cheleched el mla mekesokes; nglai a ngikel er ngii; kesekesel.
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seliik, v.r.s.(object or person) looked for or searched for or having been sought after.
seliik a mla mesiik; mla metik, rrechorech el udoud a seliik; smiik; skel.
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telooch, v.r.s.(baby, animal) fed with pre-chewed food.
telooch a rringet el kall; ngalek a menga telooch; tmochii, tmooch; tochel a ngalek.
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ulekbuch, v.r.s.married (by arranged marriage); mated.
ulekbuch a mla rullii el bo bechiil; mla mukbuch; babii a ulekbuch; omekbuch er a babii; ukbechil a babii.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bereberall, v.a.s.is to be snatched, grabbed or seized; (land) is to be captured.
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delidall, v.a.s.is to be accompanied or braided.
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derebakel, v.a.s.is to be thrust at with spear.
derebakel a kirel el mederubek; merrubek er ngii; durebekii a ochab, durubek a ducher, osiik a ngduul.
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kerioll, v.a.s.(person) is to be reminded of debt; (loan, etc.) is to be recalled.
kerioll a kirel el mekeriil; korilii, mengeriil a medal a udoud; koriil a udoud, blals a kerioll, kerilel.
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ngisall, v.a.s.(ongraol) is to be cooked or boiled in water; (tapioca) just ripe for boiling.
ngisall a kirel el mengiokl; ngisall a ongraol er a kebesengei el diokang.
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oridall, v.a.s.(someone's) departure is to be awaited.
oridall a kirel el moriid; mo dibus; olterau a ice a oridall er a beluu; odkikall.
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otekiall, v.a.s.is to be carried aboard/transported in vehicle.
otekiall a kirel el motak; rengalek er a skuul a otekiall; oltak er tir er a mlai er a skuul.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
koltgold.koltgold.
kobesossea horse.kobesos (head) long, narrow or pointed.
rekungland crab.bekerekungsmell of crabs (after cooking or eating crabs, etc.).
chiukl(singing) voice.cheiukl(person) having a good singing voice.
kullcyst; tumor.kull having a cyst or tumor.
iluodelstones, coconut shells, or similar objects used as support for cooking pot during serving.iluodel(people) sitting, standing or arranged in a circle; (stone platform) built circular.
mbesaoldrool; spittle.mbesaoldrool; spittle.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
mekeald a rengulfeel hot inside.
mesisiich a rengulstrong-willed; motivated; determined; hard-working.
sisiokel a rengulfastidious; particular.
diak lodengelii a rengul(person) unaware of his limitations or overestimates his abilities or overextends himself with committments.
chelimimuul a rengulchelimimii a rengul
mesmesim a rengulunstable; changing one's mind easily.
medengelii a rengulregain consciousness (after a faint or stroke); (person) self-confident or self-assured; (person) knowing his abilities or capacities.

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