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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

blsebes, v.r.s.(basket, box) tied up.
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kliues, v.r.s.(legs) crossed.
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rriim, v.r.s.collected or gathered and transported.
rriim a nglai; mla meriim; riemii a blai me ng diak a klalo; ruim a kall.
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uleksecher, v.r.s.made sick.
uleksecher a mla muksecher; rrom a mla meksecherii; uleksecher er a omeloko el dekool.
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ulengelt, v.r.s.sunk (into soft ground).
ulengelt a mla mongelt; ngar er a chelsel a chutem; mechas a ulengelt er a mesei, ongeltii, olengelt, ongeltel.
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ulsechomel, v.r.s.hiding in fear; cowering in fear; (bird with) folded wings (due to fear).
More Examples:
> The boy is hiding in his house because the police are looking for him.
> That bird is cowering with folded wings.

 

Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

chelungel, v.a.s.is to be carried (off) on the shoulders.
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cherematel, v.a.s.is to be washed or pumped out.
cherematel a kirel el mecherumet; mengatech, churemetii, churumet a ollumel, cheremetel.
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kemedall, v.a.s.is to be sewn up.
kemedall a kirel el mekemed; melabek a mechut el klalo; komedii a bail, kuemed, kemedel a bail.
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odmall, v.a.s.is to be made to appear.
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ongengall, v.a.s.is to be stared at.
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ongokall, v.a.s.is to be whistled to.
ongokall a kirel el mongaok ongaok a ngaok, ongokel.
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rerongel, v.a.s.(food) is to be heated so as not to spoil; (hands, etc.) are to be warmed over or next to fire.
See also:

 

State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
kullcyst; tumor.kull having a cyst or tumor.
hambunghalf.hambunghalf-witted; simple-minded.
oreomelforest; woods.chereomel forested; covered with vegetation.
mekealdhot water; hot drink (esp., coffee).mekeald warm; hot.
chemadechcoconut sap.chemadech (plant) unripe or green; (food) raw or uncooked; be in full standing position when dancing; brand new.
chermallhibiscus (bark used as a rope; leaves used as mulch for taro).chermall having vagina which lubricates quickly.
kemangetlength (of string, etc.) which exceeds what is needed or expected.kemangettall; long (in time or dimension).

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
mekeald a rengulfeel hot inside.
chelimimuul a rengulchelimimii a rengul
milkolk a rengul(person is) stupid.
tngeklel a rengulpeace offering for someone.
Rengulbaititle of chiefs in Imeliik.
blotech a rengulpleased; satisfied; appeased.
smiich a rengulfeel proud about (someone).

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