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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

blok, v.r.s.open; spread apart.
blok a mla obok; blkais, chesimer a teleu, blok a medal, mok, bekengel.
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chelsekl, v.r.s.cooked with spices.
chelsekl a mla mechesekl; kall el delul er a bebul a deel; choseklii, chosekl a diokang, mengesekl, cheseklel.
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chelsimer, v.r.s.closed; confined; locked in (e.g., as punishment).
chelsimer a telengetongel, diak le belkais, diak le nglai a chesmerel; blutek, mla mechesimer; chosmerii er a kelebus, chesmerel.
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selarech, v.r.s.stepped on; toured or visited.
selarech a mla mesarech; toluk a selarech, serechel a cheluib.
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uldikel, v.r.s.made to move/shake; (person) made active.
uldikel a ouedikel; mengidebtib; mengitengtik; uldikel er a rengalek cholechotel a bedengir el mesisiich
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uldoud, v.r.s.given money; paid.
uldoud a mla mudoud; uldoud er a demal; mla ngmai a ududel; mdudii; mildudii; ududel.
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ulsisechakl, v.r.s.taught; instructed; trained.
ulsisechakl a a meduch; mla mosisechakl; ulekrael, ulsisechakl er a mera el tekoi, ulsisecheklel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bengtall, v.a.s.(hair) is to be curled/twisted.
bengtall a bengutel, kirel el obungt, mengtii a bdelul, mungt.
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ocheruul, v.a.s.is to be filled with liquid.
ocheruul a kirel el mokeek, ralm a ocheruul er a butiliang; mesuk er a chelsel; mecherur a ollumel; ocherul.
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odiderekill, v.a.s.is to be loaded into (boat, etc.).
odiderekill a kirel el modiderekl; oltak; olengasech; odiderekl er a ert, odidereklii; odidereklel.
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oingetechall, v.a.s.is to be won or beaten.
oingetchall a kirel el moingatech; oingatech; diak el oingetechall a kall.
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oreokel, v.a.s.is to be touched (lightly).
oreokel a di moreek e tochetech; di moreek e lmangel.
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sechesall, v.a.s.is to be pecked at.
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sekesakel, v.a.s.is to be cut, sliced or flattered; (pig) is to be castrated.
sekesakel a kirel mesekosek; babii a sekesakel; sokesekii, sokosek, sekesekel; omodk.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

dechuswart; mole.dechuswart; mole.
boesgun; blowgun.sekeboesgo shooting a lot; good at shooting.
burachedskin disease in which white spots spread over body.burachedskin disease in which white spots spread over body.
bisechwild taro (makes mouth itchy).bisech(person) easily aroused sexually.
kemangetlength (of string, etc.) which exceeds what is needed or expected.kemangetlength (of string, etc.) which exceeds what is needed or expected.
tebullswelling; earth mound.tebullswelling; earth mound.
semumtrochus.semum having deformed fingers or toes.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

ngoaol a rengulconfronted with and perplexed by large task or responsibility.
ungial a rengulhappiness; joy.
mekikngit a rengulfeel rather sad or sorry about; rather mean or inconsiderate.
mesaul a rengulnot feel like.
berngel a rengulanything discouraging to one's spirit.
olsebek er a rengulworry (unintentionally); startle.
omeksebek er a rengulworry (deliberately).

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