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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

blikaks, v.r.s.(ground of garden, etc.) broken or softened.
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cheltoem, v.r.s.smeared or spread on.
cheltoem a chelsechusem; mla mechetoem; chotemii, chotoem er a chesbereber, mengetoem, chetemel.
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delerrubek, v.r.s.thrust at with spear.
delerrubek a mla mederubek; babii a delerrubek er a biskang; rrumes er a biskang, derrubek, durebekii a delel.
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klikiid, v.r.s.absolved or purified of; emptied.
klikiid a beches; mekikiid, diak el chelsechusem er a mekngit el omeruul; deledaes, klikiid er a ultelechakl, kikidii, kmikiid, kikidel.
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ulkard, v.r.s.lighted.
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ultekerekl, v.r.s.taken out of water.
ultekerekl a mlongasech; mla oltekerekl er ngii er a mesei; mo diak loumesei.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

chitemetall, v.a.s.(hand) is to be closed to make fist; is to be crushed into ball.
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dengmesall, v.a.s.is to be respected/honored.
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odengelengelall, v.a.s.is to be sent or thrown down slope; is to be sailed downwind.
odengelengelall a kirel modengelengel; odengelengel a kerrekar er a taoch.
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rerongel, v.a.s.(food) is to be heated so as not to spoil; (hands, etc.) are to be warmed over or next to fire.
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sechedekill, v.a.s.is to be tied or bound.
sechedekill a kirel mesechedekl; melibuk, sichedeklii a okul a ert; sichedekl a ouak, sechedeklel.
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techelekill, v.a.s.is to be moved or pushed up and away; is to be cleared.
techelekill a kirel el metechelokl; kirel el metemotem a oreomel; melechelokl er a kedidai; rullii el mo moded; tucheleklii a chutem; techeleklel.
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techerekill, v.a.s.is to be hung on a hook or unloaded with a winch.
techerekill a kirel el metecherakl; melecherakl er ngii.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
cheisechpermanent stain.cheisechpermanent stain.
chelechedsmall sea crab.chelechedambidextrous.
diablongdevil.diablongterrible; awful; (person) evil.
mekealdhot water; hot drink (esp., coffee).mekeald warm; hot.
britelshakiness; jitters.britelshakiness; jitters.
klukuktomorrow; the next or following day.klukuktomorrow; the next or following day.
ngelloklnodding; dozing (off).olengelloklnod when sleepy; doze off.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
chelimimii a rengulsullen; obstinate; uncooperative.
ungil er a rengulfine or all right with.
bliochel a rengulsincere; open-minded.
mekngit a rengulfeel sorry/sad about; mean; inconsiderate.
merirem er a rengulhurt someone's feelings.
melatk a rengulconsider someone's feelings.
luut er a rengulanything causing one to lose one's resolve.

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