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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

belluchel, v.r.s.mixed; dissolved.
belluchel a mla obulech, chelui, blulech, mlechii, mulech a ilumel a belluchel
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cheldereder, v.r.s.explained.
cheldereder a selaod; mla mechedereder me ng medengei; chederderel.
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deleu, v.r.s.folded; creased; bent.
deleu a mla medeu; deleuul; diak el melemalt; llemolem, dour a chimal, dmeu a babier, meleu, deul.
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delidui, v.r.s.peeped at; looked for.
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klmochel, v.r.s.(blanket, etc.) spread out; (message) sent; (body) massaged, restored.
klmochel a selumech; mla mesumech, sumechii a chedecholl, blerk; suumech a bar, smechel.
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uldak, v.r.s.added together; unified; joined.
uldak a diak le kakerous; udoud a dmak; uldak er a chimo el chidib, odak, odekial.
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ulechur, v.r.s.counted; included.
ulechur a ulecherungel; mla mochur; nglai a ildisel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bedesall, v.a.s.(fish) is to be boiled in water; (tongue) is to be cut.
bedesall a mereched el mo marek, modes a ngikel, bedakl el diokang.
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beleball, v.a.s.is to be wound around with rope, cord, tape, etc..
beleball a kirel el obelebel; omelebel er ngii, melebelii a mesil, belebelel.
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lechengaol, v.a.s.is to be put/taken.
lechengaol a kirel el modars; kles a lechengaol er a bai; loiang, lochang.
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odibsebsall, v.a.s.is to be filled to overflowing; is to be poured out.
odibsebsall a kirel el mokeek; mo mui; odibsebsii a ralm er a ngeliokl; subsii; odibsebsel.
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ongengetall, v.a.s.is to be lowered or demoted; is to be held or kept back.
ongengetall a kirel el mo er eou; mo er a uriul; monganget, mesaik a ongengetall a ududel el mo rredemelel a urrereel; ongengetel.
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rekiaol, v.a.s.is to be finished (completely).
rekiaol a kirel el merekui; urreor a di rekiaol kung; mochu merek.
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titiuul, v.a.s.is to be rolled.
titiuul a kirel el metitai; melitai er ngii; titiuul a bduu.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
chadman; person; human being; living being; someone; somebody; anyone; anybody.chadliver.
chemarsleak (in something like a boat or a bucket).chemars(boat, bucket, etc.) leaky; leaking.
chedechuulknack/magical power for doing things; blueprint; plan (for house, bai, etc).chedechuulknack/magical power for doing things; blueprint; plan (for house, bai, etc).
brakgiant yellow swamp taro.brakgiant yellow swamp taro.
cheballwhite-leafed taro (yautia); gray/white hair.cheballgray-haired; white-haired.
riamelfootball fruit (Pangi; Payan).bekeriamelsmell like football fruit; sweaty; have a strong body odor (especially, as result of diet or poor hygiene).
techiirhandnet with handle; cloth or screen for pressing coconut milk; sheath at base of coconut frond (used for pressing coconut milk).mekudem a techerel(person who) understands or catches everything.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
diak lemesim a rengulstick to one's convictions; not change one's mind.
tmuu er a rengul(something) occurs to (person)/enters (person's) mind.
melemalt a rengulfair; just; understanding; good-hearted.
ulsemuul a rengul(person) humble.
merechorech a rengulselfish; greedy; stingy.
omud a rengulfed up with; exasperated; can't stand.
mereng er a rengulplease; go along with (so as not to hurt feelings).

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