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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

chelsechosu, v.r.s.splinted.
chelsechosu a chelam; llechotel e uldak er a medecher me ng diak le medeu.
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delik, v.r.s.supported; propped up; placed in a particular location.
delik a mla medik; loia chiull e a smecher a ultuil er ngii, dikir, dmik, smecher a delik er a dik, dkel; delik a kldoel, kled, kall a delik er a tebel, dikir a tet er a ulaol, melik er a til er a ulaol.
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nglerd, v.r.s.hoisted (up in the air).
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selarech, v.r.s.stepped on; toured or visited.
selarech a mla mesarech; toluk a selarech, serechel a cheluib.
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selubed, v.r.s.(coconut tree) has cut re-opened to re-initiate sap flow.
selubed a mla mesubed; suubed a ilaot; subedii; sbedel a ilaot.
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ulekmad, v.r.s.(debt) repaid; (favor) returned.
ulekmad a mla mukmad; mla mekmad a bled el udoud; ukmedal.
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uliuid, v.r.s.copied; translated; transferred.
uliuid a mla moiuid; oidii a bilel, oiuid a chutem el mo er a ngodech el chad; oidel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

debesall, v.a.s.is to be cut or snipped.
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kitall, v.a.s.is to be pressed with fingers and massaged; is to be pressed against surface with fingers; is to be softened.
kitall a kirel mekit; mengit er ngii; omet el mesisiich.
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kiutall, v.a.s.(weeds; grass) is to be cut; (garden; village; road; etc.) is to be cleaned up.
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osengerengerall, v.a.s.is to be allowed to go hungry.
osengerengerall a kirel el mosengerenger; uasech a osengerengerall el mo urrekerek; osengerengerel.
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osiaol, v.a.s.(drawer, suitcase, etc.) is to be closed; (clothes) are to have seam sewn; (fire) is to be fed.
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rimall, v.a.s.is to be collected/gathered and transported.
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sebochel, v.a.s.is to be tried on, adjusted or equalized.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
chullrain; rainy season.chullrain; rainy season.
kimtype of large clam; female genitals.bekekimsmell of clams (after cleaning or cooking clams).
maiscorn.maisblond.
kesaiinsufficient quantity.kesaiinsufficient quantity.
diablongdevil.diablongterrible; awful; (person) evil.
tebullswelling; earth mound.tebullswelling; earth mound.
oreomelforest; woods.chereomel forested; covered with vegetation.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
cheremremangel a rengulgreedy; stingy.
komeklii a rengul(person) controlling themselves; (person) holding their tongue.
doaoch a rengulindecisive; fickle; inconsistent; prone to changing one's mind.
chidirengulchaidirengul
mekngit er a rengulnot good for; not all right with.
ilkelkel a rengulhis stupidity.
melechang a llechul a rengulteach (someone) a lesson.

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