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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

blechakl, v.r.s.made to float; let to drift.
blechakl a mla obechakl, ombibechakl, diak lebo er eou, becheklel.
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blellokl, v.r.s.made to sway.
blellokl a mla obellokl; kerrekar el dullokl, melleklii, mellokl a bderrir.
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blerroel, v.r.s.speared with beroel.
blerroel a mla oberoel; berruchel er a beroel, omeroel, merelii, berelel.
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chelemcham, v.r.s.broken into pieces.
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chelluut, v.r.s.slapped; (eyes) smarting (from wind).
chelluut a blar; mla mecheluut; chellebed a medal, cholutii a chetelaol, choluut, uldechelakl.
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teliud, v.r.s.cut lengthwise or down the middle.
teliud a teluidel; mla metiud; tiuedii a sangdiang; tmiud a bobai, meliud; tudel a bobai.
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ulkik, v.r.s.transported; brought.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bechoel, v.a.s.is to be connected.
bechoel a kirel el obech el mo ta medal, omech er a taem, mechir a omerael diak el dob, mech a eru el baeb el mo tang; bechil a baeb.
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chesuall, v.a.s.(food) is to be stirred so as not to stick to pan.
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chilotel, v.a.s.is to be oiled, greased or anointed.
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dbaol, v.a.s.is to be bombed or dynamited.
dbaol a kirel el medub er a dub; melub, klou el risois a dbaol, dubar, duub, omriid er ngii el oba dub.
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lkiil, v.a.s.(bottom of pot; basket) is to be lined with leaves; etc.
lkiil a kirel el melik; loia lkil; likir a chelais er a ngimes, lmik, lkil.
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uklematel, v.a.s.is to be made straight.
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uksecherall, v.a.s.is to be made sick.
uksecherall a kirel el muksecher; meksecherii; diak el uksecherall a chad me a charem le ng mekull.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

chadliver.chedengaolsick with jaundice.
uidfruit that has fallen off the tree on its own.udallis to be glued or pasted.
temamuuimaginary ghost with ugly face.temamuubald-headed.
bekngiukmold; (food) moldy/mildewed.bekngiukmold; (food) moldy/mildewed.
rirfallen leaves of kebui.merir(leaves) yellow.
cheremrumtype of sea cucumber; trepang.bekecheremrumsmell of sea cucumber.
H.O.(abbrev.) Babeldaob (used pejoratively).H.O.(abbrev.) Babeldaob (used pejoratively).

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

menglou er a rengultry to make (someone, oneself) patient; assure; take edge of one's hunger.
turk a rengulturk
oba a rengulindependent; self-willed.
mekngit a rengulfeel sorry/sad about; mean; inconsiderate.
llemesel a rengulhis/her/its intelligence.
omai er a rengulhesitate; be unsure about.
bliochel a rengulsincere; open-minded.

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