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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

berruud, v.r.s.torn/pulled off.
berruud a mla oberuud; nglubet el cheroid, mla meruud a chesimer, berudel.
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blasech, v.r.s.counted, named or mentioned.
blasech a ngar a basech, mesechii, blasech er a omerael; besechel.
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cheleklachel, v.r.s.cleaned by shaking with water inside; shaken.
cheleklachel a mla mecheklachel; choklechelii a ilumel, choklachel, mengklachel, cheklechelel.
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delik, v.r.s.supported; propped up; placed in a particular location.
delik a mla medik; loia chiull e a smecher a ultuil er ngii, dikir, dmik, smecher a delik er a dik, dkel; delik a kldoel, kled, kall a delik er a tebel, dikir a tet er a ulaol, melik er a til er a ulaol.
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serrochel, v.r.s.stepping on.
serrochel a mla mesarech; dechor er bebul; sorechii a deel, smarech, serrochel er a chetemel.
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ulekang, v.r.s.fed; made to eat.
ulekang a mla mokang; mla omengur; smecher a ulekang; mekelii, omekang er tir; okelel.
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ultok, v.r.s.sticking out; projecting; opposed; gone against.
ultok a mla mutok; diak loltirakl; mtekengii a llach; diak lekengei; chetil; ultok a omuchel a mekngit, mtok a telbiil; utekengel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

chetimall, v.a.s.is to be smeared or spread on.
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chetuul, v.a.s.(fish) smoked; having the potential of giving off too much smoke.
chetuul a kirel el mechat; techa mengat a ngikel? chotur, chemat a ngikel, chetul.
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ochiball, v.a.s.is to be lifted up or revealed.
ochiball a kirel mochiib; mochederiib, klalo er a skoki a ochiball el kirel a skel a mekngit el kar; ochidall, ochibel.
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odebengall, v.a.s.is to be dropped through hole; is to be delayed.
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orechudel, v.a.s.is to be rushed; urgent; emergency situation.
orechudel a orechedall.
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urerall, v.a.s.is to be worked at.
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usall, v.a.s.is to be ordered/imported.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

chermallhibiscus (bark used as a rope; leaves used as mulch for taro).chermall having vagina which lubricates quickly.
iitmiss; failure.iitpast; over (with); finished; through.
chermallhibiscus (bark used as a rope; leaves used as mulch for taro).chermallhibiscus (bark used as a rope; leaves used as mulch for taro).
otekliklvertical support beam for buadel whose bottom end lis on imuul.oteklikllying down with feet in air.
chaseborash.chasebohaving rash or prickly heat.
iluodelstones, coconut shells, or similar objects used as support for cooking pot during serving.iluodel(people) sitting, standing or arranged in a circle; (stone platform) built circular.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

omud a rengulfed up with; exasperated; can't stand.
ungial a rengulhappiness; joy.
ngellitel a rengulchoosy.
mengaidesachel a rengulcompetitive.
omult er a rengulconvince; persuade.
mekngit er a rengulnot good for; not all right with.
komeklii a rengul(person) controlling themselves; (person) holding their tongue.

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