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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

blechit, v.r.s.extracted; extirpated.
blechit a mla obechit , mengai, mechetir, mechit a medal a ngikel.
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chelubel, v.r.s.spilled; poured out; used up; out of stock; (widower and children) left alone (without wife or mother).
chelubel a mla mechubel; uleitel, chubelii, chuubel, chebelel, mengubel, chebelel a uasech.
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selubed, v.r.s.(coconut tree) has cut re-opened to re-initiate sap flow.
selubed a mla mesubed; suubed a ilaot; subedii; sbedel a ilaot.
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telngakl, v.r.s.appeased; consoled.
telngakl a mla mengunguuch; mla metngakl; tingeklii a rengul a meltord; tngeklel a rengul er a udoud.
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telooch, v.r.s.(baby, animal) fed with pre-chewed food.
telooch a rringet el kall; ngalek a menga telooch; tmochii, tmooch; tochel a ngalek.
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ulekdinges, v.r.s.made full; satisifed.
ulekdinges a ungil el ulekang; chuodel a kldmokl e medinges; diak el sengerenger; mla mukdinges; ukdngesel.
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ultamet, v.r.s.pulled at; drawn tight or taut.
ultamet a mla motamet; klurs; ert a ultamet el mong; mla otemetii, otamet a kerrekar, otemetel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

cherirall, v.a.s.is to be caught up with; (hair, etc.) is to be cut to same length.
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chesuchall, v.a.s.is to be given tortoise shell money.
chesuchall a kirel el mechesiuch; chosuchii a buchelsechal, mengesiuch, msa chesuchel.
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dekull, v.a.s.is to be buried.
dekull a kirel el medakl; doklii, dmakl, ulekoad a dekull, melakl er ngii er a chutem; deklel.
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kedekadel, v.a.s.is to be untied/unfastened.
kedekadel a kirel el mekedoked; mengubet, kodekedii a telechull, kodoked a delibuk, kedekedel
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okesebekill, v.a.s.(fingers) are to be snapped; (hands) are to be clapped.
okesebekill a kirel el mokesebakl; okesebakl a chimal; okesebeklii; okesebeklel.
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reall, v.a.s.(particular distance) is to be walked, traveled or covered.
reall a kirel el merael; ng reall a kekemanget e mochu er a Ngerechelong; remolii.
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sbechall, v.a.s.is to be broken open.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
iudoraiburent-a-car; U-drive car.iudoraibu (woman) loose or fast.
mekealdhot water; hot drink (esp., coffee).mekealdhot water; hot drink (esp., coffee).
siktcluster/bunch of fruit.mesiktbe in a cluster (used only in mesikt el btuch).
mekealdhot water; hot drink (esp., coffee).mekeald warm; hot.
builmoon; month.builmoon; month.
tutaumorning; this morning.tutaube morning.
bengtpurple colored sweet potato.bengtpurple colored sweet potato.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
bletengel a rengulnonchalance; laziness.
olturk a rengulsatiate; make someone give up (from fatigue); get one's fill of; insult continuously or mercilessly; let someone really have it.
keremerem a rengulstupid; ignorant.
mengeokl er a rengulburden; bother; cause concern; weigh on.
tuobed a rengulone's real feelings come out.
doaoch a rengulindecisive; fickle; inconsistent; prone to changing one's mind.
mesbesubed er a rengulprepare someone (psychologically) for something; pave the way for more serious discussion with someone; inform gradually or indirectly.

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