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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

cheliil, v.r.s.waited for; expected.
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delekodek, v.r.s.cut; sliced.
delekodek a mla medekodek; selekosek, babii a delekodek.
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telechiir, v.r.s.caught with a handnet.
telechiir a nglai; mla metechiir; mla obed; ticherii a iedel, tichiir a meradel, techerel.
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ulengoid, v.r.s.(food) given or exchanged ceremonially; messed up; put in wrong place.
ulengoid a mla merael a betok el chim; mla mongoid a chutem; ulengoid el cheleuid a rolel; ulechoid; cheliseksikd kung; ongidii a chutem, ongoid a udoud, ongidel.
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ulseked, v.r.s.squeezed in; crowded out.
ulseked a mla moseked; ngar a delongelel a eru el klalo el meseked; diak le medidai; ulseked er a delongelel a mlai; osekedel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

berkall, v.a.s.is to be spread or stretched out or propagated.
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cheseangel, v.a.s.is to be assisted by contribution of food or labor.
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chimkemkall, v.a.s.is to be covered over with (blanket, clothes, leave, etc.); (forest) choked with vegetation (and difficult to pass through).
chimkemkall a kirel el mechimkomk; dokedekii, medekedek, imkemkii a smecher er a bar, mengimkomk, chimkemkel.
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ongesechekill, v.a.s.(pants, etc.) are to be pulled up; is to be moved up to particular position; is to be praised or elevated.
ongesechekill a kirel el mongesechekl; rredemelel a mo er a bab; ongesecheklii, ongesecheklel.
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otuull, v.a.s.is to be carried on the back or held behind the back.
otuull a kirel el motour; oturii a ngalek, otour a babier, ngalek a otuull, oturel.
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rimall, v.a.s.is to be collected/gathered and transported.
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ririuul, v.a.s.is to be shaken.
ririuul a kirel el meririau; berikd el iedel a ririuul; ririur me ng ruebet a rdechel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
karmasuuscowfish.karmasuus
burachedskin disease in which white spots spread over body.burachedskin disease in which white spots spread over body.
kamangsickle.kamangtwisted, crippled.
teberoishin; (large, triangle-shaped) coconut candy.teberoibow-legged.
chemaiongdragonfly.chemaiongdragonfly.
cherouwhite mushroom; white scar.cherouhaving a white scar; whitish; Caucasian.
otordblunt-headed parrot fish.otordblunt-headed parrot fish.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
mengurs er a rengulattract.
kekere a renguluncomfortable; impatient.
melai er a rengulpersuade.
melib er a renguldecide; make up one's mind.
medengelii a rengulregain consciousness (after a faint or stroke); (person) self-confident or self-assured; (person) knowing his abilities or capacities.
Dirrengulbaititle of feminine counterpart or assistant to chief in Imeliik.
tmurk a rengulsatiated; fed up with.

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