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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

chelellakl, v.r.s.quieted; pacified; held or made steady; (person) quiet or unassuming.
chelellakl a kellechakl; diak el odikel, diak a uldikel er a beluu; chelellakl a belual el budech.
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deliukes, v.r.s.(food) divided or shared.
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derrai, v.r.s.(wound) irritated.
derrai a mla mederai; lmuut el ochidii a ringel; dorir a blodk, dorai a keltkat, deril.
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rririau, v.r.s.shaken.
rririau a mla meririau er ngii; iedel a rririau me ng mla ruebet a rdechel.
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selers, v.r.s.fenced in; enclosed.
selers a telenget; mla mesers; sorsii, telengetongel; rael a selers, smers, sersel.
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ulluut, v.r.s.returned; sent back.
ulluut a mla moluut; mla mengader; udoud a ulluut, olutii, oluut, olutel a udoud.
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ulsirs, v.r.s.(money) pawned or pledged; leaned against.
ulsirs a mla mosirs; mla osisii, osirs a chutem; chetemek a ulsirs er a bank; ulsisel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bedechekill, v.a.s.is to be thrown down (in fighting, etc.).
bedechekill a kirel el obedechakl, medecheklii a sechelil, medecheklii, klaibedechakl, bedecheklel.
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beksall, v.a.s.(spearhead) is to be pounded and flattened.
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chiitel, v.a.s.is to be thrown away or abandoned.
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kedngiil, v.a.s.is to be tamed.
kedngiil a kirel el mekedmokl el mo kedung; kudngir a ngalek, kudung, rullii el mo kedung.
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odiaol, v.a.s.is to be shouted or yelled to.
odiaol a kirel el modiu; oldiu, olecholt; ouchais; odiu a belduchel; odiul a udoud.
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udall, v.a.s.is to be glued or pasted.
udall a kirel el obuid, meuid; mo er ngii a uuid; babier a udall; mudii a babier; muid, udel
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udechemall, v.a.s.is to be caught or captured.
udechemall a kirel el mudechem; kirel el motoir el moreked; mdechemii a malk; mdechem a babii, udechemel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
bausmell; odor; scent.bekebausmell of vagina.
kldolsfatness; thickness.kedols(round object) fat, thick or wide. Commonly used to describe betelnuts and coconuts.
tangtikebikelsee-saw; teeter-totter.tangtikebikel(object) wobbly or in danger of falling over.
bangikoibutterfly; moth.bangikoibutterfly; moth.
chermallhibiscus (bark used as a rope; leaves used as mulch for taro).chermallPalauan money in form of green or blue glass beads.
chelsebengoshandsomeness.chesbengoshandsome; beautiful.
mechiechab hole.mechiechab hole.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
mengelengalek a rengul(person) mean-spirited; unfriendly; unpleasant; nasty; vengeful.
merirem er a rengulhurt someone's feelings.
betik a rengulhaving a deep feeling or affection for; love.
mesbesubed er a rengulprepare someone (psychologically) for something; pave the way for more serious discussion with someone; inform gradually or indirectly.
klou a rengulpatient; confident.
suebek a rengulworried; anxious.
obais a rengulget fed up with; become unable to cope with.

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