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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

cheliil, v.r.s.waited for; expected.
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chelisb, v.r.s.(food, liquid, dirt, etc.) having been scooped or spooned out.
chelisb a mla mechisb; nglai er a ongisb, chisbii, chuisb a kall, chesbel.
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delengesakl, v.r.s.(person or thing) under a spell.
delengesakl a mla medengesakl; chad a mla melengesakl er ngii; olengit a mekngit el kirel; dongeseklii er a chelid.
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ilild, v.r.s.(fruit, tapioca, taro, etc.) peeled.
ilild a nglai a budel; mla meild, ildii a diokang, imild a diokang, ildel.
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telib, v.r.s.planned; arranged; decided on; determined.
telbiil a ultebechel; mla metib; tibir a urreor; tuib a omenged, melib a tekoi.
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ulchaet, v.r.s.(fishing line) provided with leader.
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ulekmad, v.r.s.(debt) repaid; (favor) returned.
ulekmad a mla mukmad; mla mekmad a bled el udoud; ukmedal.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

chebengall, v.a.s.is to have someone facing towards him, her or it.
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chioll, v.a.s.is to be waited for.
chioll a kirel el mechiil; merreder a chioll er a cheldecheduch, choielii., olsingch er ngii.
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kimungall, v.a.s.(person) is to have head shaven.
kimungall a kirel el mekemuu; metamk a bdelul, kimungii el mo diak a chiul, klemuu, kimungel.
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ksekikl, v.a.s.(tapioca) is to be grated; (tapioca) requires grating before boiling.
ksekikl a cherduch el diokang el di kirelel meksous; diak el chedelumel.
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okidall, v.a.s.is to be consumed; is to be used or eaten up.
okidall a kirel el mokiid; okiid; mo diak; okidel.
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tkiil, v.a.s.is to be struck with fist.
tkiil a kirel el metik; tikir, tmik; diak el tkiil a chad.
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uchetall, v.a.s.(fishing line) is to be provided with leader.
uchetall a kirel el mochaet; loia uchaet er ngii; mchetii a kereel; mechaet a chetakl, uchetel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
chelsebengoshandsomeness.chesbengoshandsome; beautiful.
chullrain; rainy season.chullrain; rainy season.
katuucat.bekekatuusmell of a cat.
chiukl(singing) voice.cheiukl(person) having a good singing voice.
otordblunt-headed parrot fish.otordblunt-headed parrot fish.
bausmell; odor; scent.bekebau(cooked meat or fish, cooking pot, etc.) foul-smelling.
semumtrochus.semum having deformed fingers or toes.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
Rengulbaititle of chiefs in Imeliik.
suebek a rengulworried; anxious.
olsarech er a rengulhold in or control emotions, anger etc.
mereng er a rengulplease; go along with (so as not to hurt feelings).
mengedecheduch er a rengulthink; say to oneself.
melamet er a renguldo things as one pleases.
chidirengulchaidirengul

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