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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

cheliotel, v.r.s.containing squeezed coconut milk.
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telechelbakl, v.r.s.dived into.
telechelbakl a mla metechelbakl; te mla melechelbakl er ngii; Ngeremechiuch a techelbeklel.
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ulekses, v.r.s.(child) active/diligent.
ulekses a mla mukses; meses er a ungil el ulecheliu; ungil el omelekoi a meksesengii a chad; omekses, uksesengel.
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ultoched, v.r.s.made to give up.
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urralm, v.r.s.(clothes) rinsed.
urralm a mla muralm; mla mralm a selokel; urelmel.
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urresors, v.r.s.drowned; made to sink.
urresors a mla rusors; mla morsors; ngar er a chelsel a daob, urresors el mlai; orsesii, orsors, orsersel.
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urrirech, v.r.s.taken; snatched.
urrirech a mla morirech; mla motitech; mla moribech er a chetemel, orribech a diak el chetemel, orirechel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bechedall, v.a.s.is to be broken off/broken into pieces.
bechedall a kirel el obached, omached er ngii; kukau a bechidel, mechedii, bechedel.
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chertechetall, v.a.s.(pandanus leaf) is to have spines cut off; is to be hemmed.
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chesbungel, v.a.s.is to be scooped or spooned out.
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kdoel, v.a.s.is to be put or placed down.
kdoel a kirel el meked; kmedii a til, kmed a kall, menged er a tebel, kedeel a kall, lochang er a ulaol.
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okikall, v.a.s.is to be transported or brought.
okikall a kirel el mokiik; olekik; okiik a kall er a ocheraol.
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ongtiall, v.a.s.is to be begged or asked for.
ongtiall a kirel el mongit; ongtil a udoud, ongtiall a udoud el ngeso er a reberriid er a eolt.
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ukdengchekill, v.a.s.is to be seated.
ukdengchekill a kirel el mukedengchokl; mo dengchokl; mekedengcheklii, omekedengchokl er ngii.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
cherollbirth; birthday.ulemcheroll(woman) having already borne children.
uidfruit that has fallen off the tree on its own.udallis to be glued or pasted.
kerisgoiter.keris (neck) swollen with goiter.
ureorwork; job; task.bekureorwork a lot; hard-working; diligent.
bekngiukmold; (food) moldy/mildewed.bekngiuk(food) moldy/mildewed.
chudelgrass.chudelgrassy.
kerisgoiter.kerisgoiter.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
nguibes a renguldesirous of; lusting after.
melekoi a renguldetermined; well-motivated; make rasping or humming sound in the lungs; make humming moise while sleeping; (cat) purr.
meleolt a rengul(person) carefree or nonchalant; (person) not easily disturbed or content to let things happen as they may.
belengel a rengulastonishment/amazement.
Dirrengulbaititle of feminine counterpart or assistant to chief in Imeliik.
ukab er a rengul(something sentimental) arouses one's emotions (touch someone's figurative heart).
telematel a rengulpleased; happy.

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