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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

blakes, v.r.s.(leg) moved to walk.
blakes a mla obakes; mekesii, blakes a cheroid, blekeklel
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blengedakl, v.r.s.treated inferiorly; always receiving demands.
blengedakl a omengedakl; diak le cheleoch.
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deloes, v.r.s.(log) having had top chipped off.
deloes a mla medoes; uchelel a omelasech a meloes er ngii; mo kmeed er a omekord er ngii; teletelel a omelasech el mlai.
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telerruud, v.r.s.broken or torn or smashed down; scattered.
telerruud a telerrakl.
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telotech, v.r.s.seized; grabbed.
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ulekbeot, v.r.s.made easy/cheap.
ulekbeot a rruul el beot; diak el meringel el urreor; urreor a ulekbeot me a rechad a meses a rengrir; ukbetengel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

besebesechall, v.a.s.is to be continually contradicted/opposed.
besebesechall a kirel el obosech; mesechii, torebengii, omesebosech er ngii.
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besiochel, v.a.s.is to be adorned/decorated.
besiochel a kired el omesiich er ngii; omesiich, mesichii er a bung, mesiich, besichel.
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dedungall, v.a.s.is to be tattoed.
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kiukuall, v.a.s.is to be carried/cradled.
kiukuall a kirel el mekuoku; kiukuii a ngalek, menguoku er ngii, tolechoi a kiukuall, kiukuel.
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sengeakl, v.a.s.(odoim or rice) is to be cooked or boiled in water.
sengeakl a kirel el mesengoes; odoim a sengeakl; smongosii, songoes, melengoes, sengosel.
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sisiochel, v.a.s.is to be strengthened.
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tukukall, v.a.s.(land) is to be cleared.
tukukall a kirel el metukouk; melukouk er ngii; toukukii a oreomel; toukouk a rael; tukukel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
siktcluster/bunch of fruit.berikt(tree) productive or bearing much fruit.
chadman; person; human being; living being; someone; somebody; anyone; anybody.chadman; person; human being; living being; someone; somebody; anyone; anybody.
bausmell; odor; scent.bekebau(cooked meat or fish, cooking pot, etc.) foul-smelling.
tutkwart on sole of foot; disease of kebui leaves.tutk (kebui leaves) diseased.
bengtpurple colored sweet potato.bengtpurple colored sweet potato.
iluodelstones, coconut shells, or similar objects used as support for cooking pot during serving.iluodelstones, coconut shells, or similar objects used as support for cooking pot during serving.
techiirhandnet with handle; cloth or screen for pressing coconut milk; sheath at base of coconut frond (used for pressing coconut milk).mekudem a techerel(person who) understands or catches everything.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
belalk a rengulfeel shame/fright.
ukab er a rengul(something sentimental) arouses one's emotions (touch someone's figurative heart).
doaoch a rengulindecisive; fickle; inconsistent; prone to changing one's mind.
medemedemek a rengul kind; generous.
beltik a rengulbetik a rengul
ngelekel a rengulfavorite child.
selorech a rengulcondescending.

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