The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.
Palauan Resulting State Verbs
In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:
- Someone hides something which results in it being hidden.
- In Palauaun, omart is the verb 'to hide,' and blart is the resulting state verb corresponding to the English adjective hidden.
- Someone heats something which results in it being hot.
- In Palauaun, mengeald is the verb 'to heat,' and mekeald is the resulting state verb corresponding to the English adjective hot.
Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:
|berriid||, v.r.s.||scattered; spread; sown; dismantled.|
berriid a diak le chelludel; mriid, rechad a berrid.
|cheltakl||, v.r.s.||held/led by the hand.|
cheltakl a mla mechetakl; chotakl, choteklii a til, mengetakl a ngikel, cheteklel.
|chelusem||, v.r.s.||(mouth) wiped; (hands) wiped of dirt, food, etc.|
chelusem a mla mechusem, blutek el ngor, diak lolekoi.
|delechudech||, v.r.s.||soiled (with dirt or mud); patched; tar; pitch; asphalt.|
delechudech a mla medechudech; delechudech a chemars er a chado duchedechii, duchudech.
|serrochel||, v.r.s.||stepping on.|
serrochel a mla mesarech; dechor er bebul; sorechii a deel, smarech, serrochel er a chetemel.
Palauan Anticipating State Verbs
Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:
|bechall||, v.a.s.||(long object) is to be thrown.|
bechall a kirel el oboech; uloech a bechall. mechii, moech a biskang, bechel.
|kiokl||, v.a.s.||is to be dug; is to be opened or unlocked; (clock, watch) is to be wound.|
kiokl a kirel el mekiis; kiesii el mo delluchel, kmiis a chutem, mengiis er ngii, mesib.
|okebesall||, v.a.s.||is to be let to hang down.|
okebesall a kirel el mokabes; chetakl a okebesall, okebesii, okabes a chetakl, okebesel.
|orekodel||, v.a.s.||is to be held onto or grasped.|
orekodel a kirel el moreked; orekodel a ngalek; omerael a orekodel e le eolt a meses, orked
|tematel||, v.a.s.||is to be straightened up.|
tematel a smechekill; kirel el metamet; tometii a rengul; tuamet a chebirukel; temetel a cheldecheduch.
State Verbs with Related Nouns
In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.
This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.
Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.
|martiliong||hammer.||martiliong||clumsy; ungraceful; untalented; (person) blunt or hard-hitting (in his words).|
|bisech||wild taro (makes mouth itchy).||bisech||wild taro (makes mouth itchy).|
|iluodel||stones, coconut shells, or similar objects used as support for cooking pot during serving.||iluodel||(people) sitting, standing or arranged in a circle; (stone platform) built circular.|
|bisech||wild taro (makes mouth itchy).||bisech||fish with black and yellow stripes (makes mouth itchy).|
|idokel||dirtiness; filthiness.||idokel||dirty; filthy.|
|kesai||insufficient quantity.||kesai||insufficient; not enough; few.|
Reng Idioms as Adjectives
There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:
|merechorech a rengul||selfish; greedy; stingy.|
|sengok a rengul||curious.|
|bekongesengasech a rengul||easily angered; excitable.|
|klurt a rengul||(feelings) hurt.|
|bltkil a rengul||one's affection/concern for.|
|melib er a rengul||decide; make up one's mind.|
|milkolk a rengul||(person is) stupid.|