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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

blar, v.r.s.slapped in the face.
blar a mla obar; mechelebed, merngii, mar, blar a medal, berengel.
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blor, v.r.s.(hands, chest) laid or put on or against something.
blor a mla obor; bereked, ngalek a omor er a ulul er a ulaol.
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chelad, v.r.s.(ear) slapped.
chelad a oumechad er ngii; diak el soal remenges, mla chemad a dingal.
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delidui, v.r.s.peeped at; looked for.
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uldidm, v.r.s.spied on; watched for carefully.
uldidm a mla mudidm; mla moues; rrechorech el udoud a uldidm; mdedmii; mdidm; udedmel.
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ulluut, v.r.s.returned; sent back.
ulluut a mla moluut; mla mengader; udoud a ulluut, olutii, oluut, olutel a udoud.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bekebekall, v.a.s.is to be gladdened or made happy.
bekebekall a kirel el obekebek, mekebekii a medal, rullii a rengul el mo ungil, mo diak le merur; omekebek er ngii, bekebekel.
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bengall, v.a.s.is to be interrupted.
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lkiil, v.a.s.(bottom of pot; basket) is to be lined with leaves; etc.
lkiil a kirel el melik; loia lkil; likir a chelais er a ngimes, lmik, lkil.
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sengeakl, v.a.s.(odoim or rice) is to be cooked or boiled in water.
sengeakl a kirel el mesengoes; odoim a sengeakl; smongosii, songoes, melengoes, sengosel.
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titechall, v.a.s.is to be wedged.
titechall a kirel el metitech; loia titechel; titechii a osib; tmitech a oles, melitech; titechel.
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tiuelechall, v.a.s.is to be thrown at with a stick.
tiuelechall a kirel el metiualech; tiuelechii a iedel; toiualech, meliualech a meradel, tiuelechel.
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uchelall, v.a.s.is to be started or begun.
uchelall a kirel el meuchel; otutall; urreor a uchelall, mechelii a omelaml; muchel, uchelel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
chelechedsmall sea crab.chelechedhusked.
tedobech(one) half.tedobechhalf-filled; crazy; irrational.
kltombluntness; dullness.ketom(knife, etc) blunt or dull.
chiukl(singing) voice.cheiukl(person) having a good singing voice.
cheballwhite-leafed taro (yautia); gray/white hair.cheballgray-haired; white-haired.
butgenitals; anus; vagina; bottom (surface).bekebut(woman) having large buttocks or vagina; (man) having large buttocks.
mekealdhot water; hot drink (esp., coffee).mekeald warm; hot.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
doaoch a rengulindecisive; fickle; inconsistent; prone to changing one's mind.
omatek er a rengul restrain ones desire to do something; keep ones desire(s) to oneself.
kekere a renguluncomfortable; impatient.
rrou a rengulsuddenly confused or perplexed.
kikiongel a rengul(person is) obstinate/uncooperative; sullen.
blosech a rengulhaving strange feelings about; be suspicious of.
moded a rengul(person is) easygoing/even-tempered.

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