Quick links:

Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

chelderuar, v.r.s.stirred; agitated; mixed up; (person) stunned or temporarily disoriented (typically due to having been struck in the head); (person) drunk; intoxicated; inebriated.
See also:
klimut, v.r.s.grabbed and thrown down; overpowered.
klimut a blitelek; telilech er a chutem; mla mekimut e le ng mechitechut; kimtengii a sechelil.
See also:
nglim, v.r.s.(beverage) drunk.
nglim a mla mengim; mengur a nglim; mla mo diak; te mla nguim
See also:
rraud, v.r.s.(fishnet) closed.
rraud a mla mesemosem; roudii a chelais, remaud, chelasel a rraud, rudel.
See also:
ulekellakl, v.r.s.held on slant or at angle.
ulekellak a dkois; turekorek, tingoi a ochil a ulekellak a omerolel; olekang a ulekellak.
See also:
ulngamk, v.r.s.set right or straight.
ulngamk a mla mungamk; mla locha ungamk er ngii; ulngamk a omekedecheraol, ungemkel a rael.
See also:
ultoech, v.r.s.pierced or drilled through.
ultoech a mla motoech; mla mo chemolt; tmoech, otechii er a belsibs, ultoech er a bitang; otechel.
See also:

 

Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

chesmerall, v.a.s.is to be closed, confined or locked in (e.g. as punishment).
See also:
chimkemkall, v.a.s.is to be covered over with (blanket, clothes, leave, etc.); (forest) choked with vegetation (and difficult to pass through).
chimkemkall a kirel el mechimkomk; dokedekii, medekedek, imkemkii a smecher er a bar, mengimkomk, chimkemkel.
See also:
ildall, v.a.s.(fruit, tapioca, taro, etc.) is to be peeled.
ildall a kirel meild; kirel mengai a budel; ildii a brak, imild a diokang, ildel a kukau.
See also:
kekeringall, v.a.s.is to be made smaller or reduced in size.
kekeringall a kirel el mo kekerei; mengkekerei; kokeringii a blengur, kmekerei a mo delikik el kall, diak le klou, diak luleiis; kekeringil.
See also:
odekedekall, v.a.s.is to be chased or run after; is to be caught with or fought (with).
odekedekall a kirel el modekedek; kirel el moreked; orekedii, odekedekii a merechorech, odekedek, odekedekel.
See also:
sudall, v.a.s.is to be erased; is to be dried or wiped off.
sudall a mesesusuud; ulechel a kim a sudall; suedii, smuud.
See also:
utiil, v.a.s.is to be put over fire; is to be put or placed; is to be pounded into ground.
utiil a ngklel a irimd. utiil a klalo el kirel el mouat; omat a irimd; melai a mekoll er a budel.
See also:

 

State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
rirfallen leaves of kebui.merirthe color yellow.
chuisworm; maggot.bederechuis(starchy food) spoiled (by water); decomposing or moldy.
chelechelouldandruff.chelecheloulhaving dandruff.
ngelloklnodding; dozing (off).olengelloklslow-moving; sluggish.
chemadechcoconut sap.chemadech (plant) unripe or green; (food) raw or uncooked; be in full standing position when dancing; brand new.
burachedskin disease in which white spots spread over body.burachedhaving skin covered with white spots.
temamuuimaginary ghost with ugly face.temamuuimaginary ghost with ugly face.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
mechitechut a rengulweak willed; unmotivated; easily discouraged.
smuuch a rengul(person) calm/placid.
chelimimuul a rengulchelimimii a rengul
kekere a renguluncomfortable; impatient.
chelemekl a rengul(person) holding a grudge; (person) strong, stubborn, persistent, determined.
urrechomel a rengulindecisive.
kikiongel a rengul(person is) obstinate/uncooperative; sullen.

WARN Table 'belau.log_bots' doesn't exist
INSERT INTO log_bots (page,ip,agent,user,proxy) VALUES ('adjectives.php','54.80.209.254','CCBot/2.0 (http://commoncrawl.org/faq/)','','')