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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

chelam, v.r.s.broken in two.
chelam a chelemuul; mla mecham; chomur, chuam a rachel, mengam, ochil a chelam, chemul a uach.
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cheldull, v.r.s.collected; assembled.
cheldull a chelludel; uldak el rokui; mla mechudel; mengudel, chedelel.
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delul, v.r.s.broiled; roasted; sunburned.
delul a mla medul er a ngau.
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klad, v.r.s.(sea cucumber) rolled/rubbed in ashes (to remove bad-tasting outer membrane).
klad er a chutem; a di dechudech el ta el chad. klad a mla mekad; kodir, kmad, mengad a cheremrum el mlai a mekoll er ngii; kedil.
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klsai, v.r.s.decreased; reduced.
klsai a kesai; ngelsonges; klsai er a rechad er a Belau.
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ulchelucheb, v.r.s.(cooking food) covered with leaf, bag, etc.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

debochel, v.a.s.is to be invented, introduced or composed.
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oteruul, v.a.s.is to be sold or given away; for sale.
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rederdall, v.a.s.is to be stepped on; (bicycle) is to be peddled.
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sibesongel, v.a.s.is to be tripped or hindered.
sibesongel a olibesongel; ngii di le ngera el melibas; tetuk el kerrekar a sibesongel er a rael; mesaik el chad a sibesongel er a urreor.
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smochel, v.a.s.(blanket, etc.) is to be spread out; (message) is to be sent; (body) is to be messaged; is to be restored.
smochel a suumech; mesumech, uldechuul a smochel a bedengel; sumechii a bdelul; smechel a uldechuul.
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tekiungel, v.a.s.needs to be talked to; (person) is being talked about (because of bad behavior, etc.).
tekiungel a kirel el mo er ngii a tekoi; soadel er a beluu, tekiungel er a beluu er a omengubs.el sers.
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toadel, v.a.s.(sardines) are to be caught between prongs of a spear.
taodel a kirel el metaod; tmaod a mekebud, tmodii a kall, melaod, todel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
berechsmell of raw fish.bekeberechsmell of the sea or raw fish.
iudoraiburent-a-car; U-drive car.iudoraibu (woman) loose or fast.
besokelringworm.besokelringworm.
secheleifriend; companion; boyfriend; girlfriend; lover; term of address from a woman to a group of people.bekesecheleifriendly; having many friends.
maiscorn.maiscorn.
singchwaist; pelvis; lower back.bekesingch
rirfallen leaves of kebui.merir(leaves) yellow.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
bechecherd a rengulirascible; easily fed up with.
olturk a rengulsatiate; make someone give up (from fatigue); get one's fill of; insult continuously or mercilessly; let someone really have it.
ouralmesils a rengulweak-willed.
ungial a rengulhappiness; joy.
orreked er a rengulrestrain or control (oneself) (esp., from showing anger).
urrengulelurungulel
tngeklel a rengulpeace offering for someone.

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