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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

kliai, v.r.s.raised just above surface (but not touching); levitating.
kliai a mla mekiai; mengellael; di telkib el cheroid er a chutem a ochil; kiei el kliai a ochil er a ulaol.
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kludem, v.r.s.placed close together (in space or time).
kludem a kaiuekeed; mekudem, kudemii; kuudem, mekudem el dellomel
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lling, v.r.s.punched with a hole.
lling a mla meling; chemars, ngar er ngii a blsibes; lingir, lming, lling el olekang.
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terrakl, v.r.s.destroyed; broken up; scattered; fraction (in math).
terrakl a berriid; mla meterakl; toreklii a blai; tereklel.
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ulchob, v.r.s.brought to surface of water.
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uldeu, v.r.s.made happy; pleased.
uldeu a mla mo ungil a rengul; mla modeu a rengul, deulreng.
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urrekerek, v.r.s.(juice, gravy) reboiled and thickened.
urrekerek a mla morekerek; mla mo medirt; urrekerek el uasech, merkerekii a miich, orekerekel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bengall, v.a.s.is to be broken or cracked.
bengall a kirel el obeu; beongel, mengii, meu a lius, omeu a lius, bengel.
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betochel, v.a.s.is to be thrown at, pounded or cracked.
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bidall, v.a.s.are to be travelled between.
bidall a kirel el oboid; omoid, merael a beluu, midii, bidel
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dkoel, v.a.s.is to be supported or propped up.
dkoel a kirel el medik; dikir, kmedii, klok a dkoel er a tebel.
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odkelall, v.a.s.is to be made to move; (person) is to be made active.
odkelall a kirel el modikel; mesaik a odkelall, odkelii; rullii el mo ouedikel; odkelel.
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oremoll, v.a.s.is to be urged or forced.
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sibesongel, v.a.s.is to be tripped or hindered.
sibesongel a olibesongel; ngii di le ngera el melibas; tetuk el kerrekar a sibesongel er a rael; mesaik el chad a sibesongel er a urreor.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
chullrain; rainy season.chullrain; rainy season.
tutkwart on sole of foot; disease of kebui leaves.tutkpointer; pole (for picking fruit).
lalechpus.bellachelpurulent; festering; (woman's genitals) unclean and smelly; (starchy food) too soft or slimy.
chaisnews.merael a chiselwell-known; famous; infamous; (person) popular. (news) spreading quickly.
singodor of sperm.besingsmell of sperm; smell unclean (esp., used in insults referring to women).
choalechsea urchin.choalech(head) having bristly hair.
rubakelder; old man; chief; foreign man; boyfriend; husband.bekerubaksmell like an old man.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
raud a rengulvariable; indecisive.
meleolt a rengul(person) carefree or nonchalant; (person) not easily disturbed or content to let things happen as they may.
mesaul a rengulnot feel like.
luut er a rengulanything causing one to lose one's resolve.
menglou er a rengultry to make (someone, oneself) patient; assure; take edge of one's hunger.
nguibes a renguldesirous of; lusting after.
mekngit er a rengulnot good for; not all right with.

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