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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

blengar, v.r.s.(firewood) collected.
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cheldellumel, v.r.s.(tapioca) cooked.
chedellumel a mla mechedellumel; chedellumel el tuu.
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klengoes, v.r.s.(odoim or rice) cooked/boiled in water.
klengoes a ulekmark el odoim; mla mesengoes a klengoes, smongoes, melengoes, sengosel.
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kluld, v.r.s.pinched (with fingernails).
kluld a mla mekuld er a kuk; kmuld; ulsiu a kekul er a bedengel a chad.
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lloched, v.r.s.(string, cord, wire, etc. or relationship between villages) broken.
lloched a llechidel. Telemall el deleuill era beluu ma beluu.
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uliit, v.r.s.deflected; turned away.
uliit a mla moiit; mla imiit er a rael; diak lokiu a rolel; cheleuid a osisecheklel er a ochur a uliit, ietel a osisechakl.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bengkengkall, v.a.s.is to be laid on ground.
bengkengkall a kirel el obengkangk; mengkengkii a bambuu, mengkangk a kerrekar, mo blengkangk, bengkengkel.
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ocherengaol, v.a.s.is to be counted or included.
ocherengaol a ocherengall.
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osebelall, v.a.s.is to be saved, rescued or taken care of.
osebelall a kirel el mosobel, urrechorech el dial! a osebelall a rechad, osebelii, osobel, osebelel.
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sekedall, v.a.s.is to be squeezed in or crowded out.
sekedall a kirel mo meseked; sokedii, Babeldaob a sekedall er a rechad er a Belau; smeked.
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ulochall, v.a.s.is to be prophesied about.
ulochall a kirel el mulaoch; omlaoch er ngii; mlochii a meringel el kodall; mlaoch a klebelung; ulochel.
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usechemall, v.a.s.is to be grabbed with the fist.
usechemall a kirel el musechem; mla moreked, diak momsechem er a diak el ududem.
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utechedall, v.a.s.(spearhead) is to have barbs made; is to be jerked or pulled.
utechedall a kirel el mutoched; locha techedel; mtoched a biskang, mtechedii a ongerekor; utechedel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
cheluchcoconut oil; fuel (e.g. gasoline, kerosene, diesel oil, etc.); grease (from meat being cooked).bekecheluchsmell of coconut oil.
sengerengerhunger; starvation.bekesengerengerget hungry easily; always getting hungry.
bengtpurple colored sweet potato.bengtpurple.
mekealdhot water; hot drink (esp., coffee).mekeald warm; hot.
chetaubrief rain squall.chetau (skin) dark.
burachedskin disease in which white spots spread over body.burachedskin disease in which white spots spread over body.
bodechcurved configuration/shape of boat.bodechesausstanding erect/in ramrod fashion; standing with expanded chest.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
kngtil a rengul(someone's) being mean or feeling sad or frustrated.
cheldeng a rengulconfused; surprised; stubborn; dull-witted; slow (in understanding).
seselkang a rengulbecoming bored or impatient.
ungial a rengulhappiness; joy.
klou a rengulpatient; confident.
kekere a renguluncomfortable; impatient.
olengasech er a rengulmake or get (someone) angry.

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