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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

blok, v.r.s.open; spread apart.
blok a mla obok; blkais, chesimer a teleu, blok a medal, mok, bekengel.
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bludech, v.r.s.bound into sheaves; pacified.
bludech a mla obudech; mdechii, bludech el beluu a chimo ngerel; ngar ngii a kltalreng; bdechel a beluu.
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klertall, v.r.s.scratched; raked.
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klloaol, v.r.s.grabbed at and squeezed or kneaded; (taro patch) prepared.
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telboech, v.r.s.touched or cooked lightly.
telboech a mla metboech; tibechii a sechelil; melboech er ngii.
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teleketokel, v.r.s.constructed; assembled.
teleketokel a teleketek.
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ulebangel, v.r.s.interrupted; half; (something which) did not survive.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bechedall, v.a.s.is to be broken off/broken into pieces.
bechedall a kirel el obached, omached er ngii; kukau a bechidel, mechedii, bechedel.
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betachel a rengul, v.a.s.is to be pleased/satisfied/appeased; content.
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delidall, v.a.s.is to be accompanied or braided.
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kesadel, v.a.s.is to be decreased or reduced.
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kilungall, v.a.s.is to be enlarged or increased in size.
kilungall a kirel el mo klou; osarech a rengmiu; menglou, mo kiei a rengmiu; rengud a rechad a kilungall, kilungii a rengum, mo diak el sebek a rengum; kilungel a reng.
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otengelall, v.a.s.is to be taken/brought down.
otengelall a kirel el motengel; otengel a kall el mei er eou; otengelii a bangderang.
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tirterall, v.a.s.is to be hunted or investigated.
tirterall a siokel; kirel el meteriter; tirterii a klemerang; tiriter a ungil, merriter a tekoi; tirterel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
britelshakiness; jitters.britel(person) shaky/jittery.
mechasold woman; titled woman; foreign woman; male's father's sisters; girlfriend; wife.mechasold woman; titled woman; foreign woman; male's father's sisters; girlfriend; wife.
chedechuulknack/magical power for doing things; blueprint; plan (for house, bai, etc).chedechuulingenious; clever; inventive.
brotechclapping; wooden paddle used as war weapon; applause; praise.bekebrotechprone to slapping.
iluodelstones, coconut shells, or similar objects used as support for cooking pot during serving.iluodelstones, coconut shells, or similar objects used as support for cooking pot during serving.
chemadechcoconut sap.chemadechcoconut sap.
kldolsfatness; thickness.kedols(round object) fat, thick or wide. Commonly used to describe betelnuts and coconuts.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
mechese a rengulbecoming surprised.
diak lodengelii a rengul(person) unaware of his limitations or overestimates his abilities or overextends himself with committments.
mechas a rengulbe surprised at.
kie a rengul calm down; stop worrying.
beralm a rengullazy; unmotivated; unconcerned; uncaring.
keremerem a rengulstupid; ignorant.
bliochel a rengulsincere; open-minded.

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