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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

blodes, v.r.s.(fish) boiled in water; (tongue) cut from eating pineapple, sugar cane, etc.
blodes a beldakl; medesii, modes, omeldakl, omodes, bedesel; blodes a terechel er a ngor; kltkat, blodes a ngerel er a ongor, bedesel.
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blukel, v.r.s.cut or pushed down.
blukel a ulukel; mla meukel, a lius a blukel, mkelii, ukelel.
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chelseches, v.r.s.locked; latched.
chelseches a blai el chelsimer e ngar er ngii a chesechesel.
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delechodech, v.r.s.(person) speared or clubbed.
delechodech a mla medechodech; chellebed er a olechodech, chelebed er a mekemad.
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klsakl, v.r.s.(something) wrong/the matter.
klsakl a ngar er ngii a telemall; mla mekesakl? ke klsakl? tia ng klsakl?
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telamet, v.r.s.straightened out.
telamet a mla metamet; telematel, tometii a rengul; tuamet a chebirukel; temetel a reng.
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ulluut, v.r.s.returned; sent back.
ulluut a mla moluut; mla mengader; udoud a ulluut, olutii, oluut, olutel a udoud.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bsechall, v.a.s.(feathers, hair, etc.) is to be plucked.
bsechall a bsuchel, kirel el obusech, ngeuul a bsechel, msechii a malk; musech
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oibekall, v.a.s.is to be broken or smashed through.
oibekall a kirel el moiubek; tmoech er a bitang; kboub a oibekall, oibekii, oiubek, oibekel.
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oterekall, v.a.s.is to be argued down; is to be moored; is to be ask permission.
oterekall a oterukel; kirel el moturek; olturek, nguu a kengei; oterekall a merreder, oterekel; oterekall a kirel el moturek, oturek a blulekngel; rullii el tmurek; oterekel a ngerel.
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riokel, v.a.s.is to be swept.
riokel a kirel el meriik; besbas a riokel; riekii a blai; remiik a besbas; rikel a rael.
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techeball, v.a.s.is to be removed/scraped up/cut out/uprooted.
techeball a techibel; kirel el metecheb; nguu a belsiich er a ngot, tochebii a nguu el rokir, nguu er a uchul.
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terebengall, v.a.s.is to be turned face or top down; is to be stopped.
terebengall a omosech; kirel el meterob; torebengii a omerael; torob a osisebel a mekngit el kar; terebengel.
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udedmall, v.a.s.is to be spied on or watched for carefully.
udedmall a kirel el mudidm; berrotel e mes; mdedmii a merechorech, mdidm a omerotel er a klalo, udedmel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
karmasuuscowfish.karmasuus
temamuuimaginary ghost with ugly face.temamuubald-headed.
bausmell; odor; scent.bekebausmell of vagina.
kesaiinsufficient quantity.kesaiinsufficient; not enough; few.
techiirhandnet with handle; cloth or screen for pressing coconut milk; sheath at base of coconut frond (used for pressing coconut milk).mekudem a techerel(person who) understands or catches everything.
bengtpurple colored sweet potato.bengtpurple.
meduumale genitals (large).meduubreadfruit.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
meses a rengulindustrious; diligent.
checherd a rengulimpatient; fed up with.
berngel a rengulanything discouraging to one's spirit.
omichoech a rengul(stomach) grumble, talk or gurgle (especially from hunger); (person) feel excited.
mesbeda a rengul(person) come to realize or accept (fact, etc.).
medemedemek a rengul kind; generous.
bekokuii a rengulkind; generous.

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